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Flashcards in Stalin and the Soviet Economy Deck (37):

What was the political aspect of Stalin's aims for economy?

Saw in a hard-line policy the best means of confirming his authority over the Party and government
= political expediency


What did Stalin believe the survival of the revolution depended on?

The nation's ability to turn its self into a modern industrial society within the shortest time possible


What did Stalin's speech in 1931 contain?

The claim of Russia pervious backwardness leading to its constant defeat, to prevent this Russia must modernise


What were kolkhoz?

Collective farms:
- run as co-operative in which the peasants pooled their resources and share the labour and wages


What were sovkhoz?

State farms:
- farms containing peasants working directly for the state, paid a fixed wage


What were the two vital results Stalin wanted from efficient farming?

- create surplus food supplies to sell abroad to raise capital for industry
- decrease the number of rural workers needed to create workers for the new factories


What did Stalin insist food shortages were the result of?

Grain-hoarding by the richer peasants
= provided moral grounds for the onslaught on the Kulaks


What succeeded the Cheka?

OGPU, then the NKVD, later KGB


Why did poorer peasants often take part in 'de-kulakisation'?

Proved them with an excuse to settle old cores and to give vent to local jealousies


How did 'de-kulakisation' benefit Collectivisation?

Served as a warning to the mass of the peasants of the likely consequences of resisting the state


How many farms were collectivised between December 1929 and March 1930?

Nearly half


What disturbances occurred in resistance to Collectivisation 1929-30?

- 30,000 arson attacks
- organised rural mass disturbances increase 1/3rd


When had virtually the whole peasantry been collectivised?

End of 1930s


How much did livestock decrease during 1928-1932?

By half


How many peasants had died in the famine 1932-33?



How did collectivisation achieve what Stalin wanted?

Conversion from an agricultural society to an industrial one


What did Stalin describe his industrial plans for the USSR as?

An attempt to establish a war economy


What were the dates for the 1st FYP?



What did the 1st FYP include?

Not so much of a plan but laid down what was to be achieved, but did no say how this was to be done


What did local officials and managers do during the 1st FYP?

Falsified their production figures to give the impression they had met targets when they had fallen short


How were the FYP huge propaganda projects?

Aimed at convincing the Soviet people that they were personally engaged in a vast individual enterprise
- by their own effort they were changing the character of society


Between 1928-1932 how many people travelled to Magnitogorsk?



How was industrialisation also a cultural revolution?

There was an attempt being made to create a new type of individual, 'the soviet man'


What happened to living conditions during the 1st FYP?

They deteriorated
- accommodation in the towns and cities remained sub-standard


Why were machines and factories often ruined?

Because of workers' lack of basic skills


What was the term 'sabotage' used as?

A blanket term used to denounce anyone not pulling their weight


What was the difference between the 1st FYP compared to the 2nd and 3rd?

2nd and 3rd had more realistic quotas
- BUT still revealed the same lack of co-ordniation that had characterised the first


What did Alexei Stakhanov do?

Claimed the he had cut over 100 tons of coal in one five-hour shift = more than 14 times of his required quota
- used as propaganda = what was achievable in Stalin's USSR


How did workers have no rights during the FYPs?

- strikes were prohibited
- demands for better pay and conditions were regarded as selfishly inappropriate at a time of national crisis


What was the code of 'labour discipline'?

Demanded maximum effort and output; failure to conform was punishable by a range of penalties:
- loss of wages
- imprisonment


How did living standards fair in 1937 compared to 1928?

They were worse


By 1940 how much government expenditure was on armaments?



What was the coal production in 1927 and 1940?

1927 = 35m tons
1940 = 150m tons


How much had coal, steel and oil risen in 12 years?

- coal = x5
- steel = x6
- oil = x2


Why did the USSR have no chance of competing with modernising economies of Europe and the USA?

- used old techniques such as massed labour rather than using efficient machines
- financial and material assets were wasted
- no intention of producing quality goods that could be exported


What did Stalin's schemes fail to improve?

- agricultural productivity
- living standards


What did the lack of agricultural growth result in?

Constant food shortages which could only be met by buying foreign supplies