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Flashcards in Stalin quotes and historical interpretations Deck (31):
1

The NEP could not work in the long run and technological backwardness and unstable nature of the internal and world markets couldn't have brought the USSR forward.

Western historians including E. H. Carr

2

'We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in ten years. Either we do it or we shall be crushed.'

A speech from Stalin 1931

3

A kulak is 'the accursed enemy of collectivisation'

Stalin in 1929

4

'The peasants are holding their grain back'

Secret politburo discussions, January 1928

5

Historical view about the terror: it was an integral part of the Soviet system

It was born in terror eg. Civil war to seize power in 1917, and Lenin had labour camps secret police (cheka)

6

Historical view about the terror: terror was a necessary part of the economic change

Eg. For unwilling groups such as liquidising the kulaks

7

Who said about the first FYP 'Heavy industry expanded at an accelerating rate'

Historian R. Davies

8

Which group of people think the NEP was too restrictive and didn't allow the Soviet economy to breathe or expand

Russian economists

9

Who said under the NEP a moderate rate of expansion of both industry and agriculture could continue

R. Davies

10

'The worst period of Russia's own crisis coincided with crashes and bankruptcies in the 'capitalist' world, and at least Russia's troubles could be seen as growing pains'

A. Nove

11

'The cleansings were unavoidable and their results, on the whole, were beneficial'

Stalin ending the purges in a speech in 1939

12

'Better that ten innocent people should suffer than one spy get away'

Yezhov on how random the terror was in operating

13

'No area of Soviet life escaped being purged. Under Stalin terror was elevated to a method of government'

M. Lynch

14

'The terrible purges weakened but did not disrupt the combination. Gaps were rapidly filled by new recruits indebted to the regime'

M. Fainsod

15

'Stalin was the natural successor to Lenin because the party had become so bureaucratised'

Richard Pipes

16

Who believes Stalin's rise to power was down to his own personal qualities

The Liberal School

17

Stalin demonstrated the 'necessary grit, determination, manipulative skills and ruthlessness to attain power through his own means'

Conquest (from the liberal school)

18

Believed Stalin's rise to power was more attributed to party structure where the position of the General Secretary came to be all important

Western historians, structuralists such as E. H. Carr

19

'Lenin did not merely inspire revolutionary terror, he was also the first to make it into a state institution'

Volkogonov

20

Said the terror was due to Stalin's 'lust for power, boundless ambition'

Medvedev

21

The purges were made scapegoats for the real failings

Nove

22

There was popular support for Stalin's policies including class warfare and de-Kulakisation

Revisionist historians

23

There was great enthusiasm for the programme of rapid industrialisation among the workers

Revisionist historians

24

The worst period in Russia's own crisis coincided with crashes and bankruptcies in the 'capitalist' world, and at least Russia's troubles could be seen as growing pains

Nove

25

Stalin's policies were a product of the time and place

E. H. Carr

26

Successfully tackled such formidable tasks as the laying of the material and technical foundations of Socialism

Y. Kukushkin

27

There was a certain logic to Stalin eg FYP given the backwardness of Russia

Nove

28

Stalin's methods resulted in significant gains in industrial production in a short space of time, even though 'impossible' targets could not be met.

Economists, including H. Hunter

29

Who disagrees with economists, that Bukharin's longer term economic development could have had many of the successes without the terrible by-products of Stalinism

R. Tucker

30

There was widespread support in the USSR for the campaign against kulaks

A. Getty

31

Interpretation about the terror: although Stalin was at the centre of power, certain individuals such as Molotov who held an important position was prepared to argue policy with him

A. Getty