Flashcards in Standard 1 - Terms and definitions for Brainscape Deck (51):
Agreement during the Constitutional Convention that slaves would be counted as 3/5 of a person when determining the # of representatives per state
Laws passed in the early 1800's stating that people who spoke out against the government could be imprisoned and foreigners could be deported. KY & VA passed resolutions refusing to obey these laws.
Alien and Sedition Acts
This was the first document outlining the relationship of the states. It allowed Congress to encourage states do do things, but didn't give them the power to tax or force the states into anything.
Articles of Confederation
The first 10 Amendments to the US - They were added because the Anti-Federalists refused to ratify the Constitution unless basic rights were guaranteed
Bill of Rights
Event when British soldiers fired on a crowd of demonstraters and killed 5 of them. This led to the American Revolution
Early examples of these include rice, indigo, and tobacco, but NOT cotton. (At least, until the cotton gin was invented)
The idea that each branch of government should keep an eye on the others to make sure they don't take too much power for themselves.
Checks and Balances
Document written by the colonies to explain to the world why they were separating from England.
Declaration of Independence
This is the type of government we have: We vote on some issues, but allow people to represent us on more complex issues.
Government arrangement where states and a central government have some separate powers and some that overlap
Documents written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay to encourage the ratification of the Constitution
People who believed that the strong central government described in the Constitution would be in the best interest of the American people
People who believed that the Constitution should not be ratified because they thought it gave the central government too much power over people's lives
War between Britain & France. To defend the colonies, the British sent many soldiers. To pay for this war, England taxed the colonies.
French & Indian War
Agreement at the Constitutional Convention that the US would have a bicameral system. The makeup of one house would be based on the population of the states. The other house would be made up of an equal number from each state.
Secretary of the Treasury in Washington's cabinet. Frequently argued with Jefferson over their interpretation of the US Constitution. His followers called themselves "Federalists"
Secretary of State in Washington's cabinet. Frequently argued with Alexander Hamilton over their interpretation of the US Constitution. His followers called themselves "Democratic-Republicans"
First representative body in the American colonies. (In Virginia)
House of Burgesses
Wrote "The Social Contract" and believe that the basic rights of all men are "life, liberty, and property"
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court remembered for greatly strengthening the power of the court in cases like "Marbury v. Madison" and "Gibbons v. Ogden"
Power of the Supreme Court to determine if laws passed by Congress are Constitutional. (Marbury v. Madison)
First battle of the American Revolution
Lexington & Concord
The idea that government can do only what the Constitution allows it to do.
English document that severely limited the power of the king
Court case remembered for instituting "Judicial Review"
Marbury v. Madison
Agreement signed by the Pilgrims stating that they would submit to the laws of their government
Hamilton & Jefferson argued over whether the US government had the power to create this to manage the $$ of the United States
Land organized under the Articles of Confederation creating the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin.
The idea that whoever controls the money controls everything.
Power of the Purse
Religious group who colonized the New England area because they wanted to practice their religion freely. (They did NOT, however, offer freedom of religion to those who disagreed with them)
Religious group that believed all have an "inner light". Found in the Mid-Atlantic states - especially Pennsylvania. Were among the first abolitionists.
Member of the Massachusetts colony who was exiled for teaching the separation of church & state - went on to found Rhode Island
Idea that all - even those in government - must obey the laws of the land
Rule of Law
Term meaning that because England respected the colonies, they left them on their own to run their own affairs.
Turning point of the Revolutionary War. After this battle, the French helped us because they believed we might actually be able to win.
The belief that each branch of government should be given different powers so that no one branch has too much.
Separation of Powers
Event when a number of former soldiers, upset that they had not received their military pensions, shut down the local government. This demonstrated the weakness of the Articles of Confederation.
Agreement at the Constitutional Convention that they would not discuss the slave trade or do anything about it for at least 20 years.
Slave Trade Compromise
John Locke believed that society held together because of this agreement where the government promised to protect its people and people promised to obey the government.
1st Direct tax placed on the colonists during the colonial period. This angered them and led to a boycott
People who interpret the Constitution literally and believe the government can do no more than what it specifically states
The group of people formally responsible for electing the President of the United States
The Electoral College
Treaty that formally ended the Revolutionary War
Treaty of Paris
Statements issued by two states declaring that they would not obey the Alien & Sedition laws
VA & KY Resolutions
Plan discussed at the Constitutional Convention that would have given states a varying number of representatives based on each state's population.
Event when farmers in the north revolted against the government because of a tax increase on whiskey
Quaker who founded Pennsylvania
Final battle of the Revolutionary War
One of the two original politcal parties - This one followed the strict Constitutional interpretation practices of Thomas Jefferson.
Plan discussed at the Constitutional Convention that would have given all states an equal number of representatives. This was offered as a direct alternative to the VA plan.