Standard 1 - Terms and definitions for Brainscape Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Standard 1 - Terms and definitions for Brainscape Deck (51):
1

Agreement during the Constitutional Convention that slaves would be counted as 3/5 of a person when determining the # of representatives per state

3/5 Compromise

2

Laws passed in the early 1800's stating that people who spoke out against the government could be imprisoned and foreigners could be deported. KY & VA passed resolutions refusing to obey these laws.

Alien and Sedition Acts

3

This was the first document outlining the relationship of the states. It allowed Congress to encourage states do do things, but didn't give them the power to tax or force the states into anything.

Articles of Confederation

4

The first 10 Amendments to the US - They were added because the Anti-Federalists refused to ratify the Constitution unless basic rights were guaranteed

Bill of Rights

5

Event when British soldiers fired on a crowd of demonstraters and killed 5 of them. This led to the American Revolution

Boston Massacre

6

Early examples of these include rice, indigo, and tobacco, but NOT cotton. (At least, until the cotton gin was invented)

Cash Crops

7

The idea that each branch of government should keep an eye on the others to make sure they don't take too much power for themselves.

Checks and Balances

8

Document written by the colonies to explain to the world why they were separating from England.

Declaration of Independence

9

This is the type of government we have: We vote on some issues, but allow people to represent us on more complex issues.

Democratic Republic

10

Government arrangement where states and a central government have some separate powers and some that overlap

Federalism

11

Documents written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay to encourage the ratification of the Constitution

Federalist Papers

12

People who believed that the strong central government described in the Constitution would be in the best interest of the American people

Federalists

13

People who believed that the Constitution should not be ratified because they thought it gave the central government too much power over people's lives

Antifederalists

14

War between Britain & France. To defend the colonies, the British sent many soldiers. To pay for this war, England taxed the colonies.

French & Indian War

15

Agreement at the Constitutional Convention that the US would have a bicameral system. The makeup of one house would be based on the population of the states. The other house would be made up of an equal number from each state.

Great Compromise

16

Secretary of the Treasury in Washington's cabinet. Frequently argued with Jefferson over their interpretation of the US Constitution. His followers called themselves "Federalists"

Hamilton

17

Secretary of State in Washington's cabinet. Frequently argued with Alexander Hamilton over their interpretation of the US Constitution. His followers called themselves "Democratic-Republicans"

Jefferson

18

First representative body in the American colonies. (In Virginia)

House of Burgesses

19

Wrote "The Social Contract" and believe that the basic rights of all men are "life, liberty, and property"

John Locke

20

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court remembered for greatly strengthening the power of the court in cases like "Marbury v. Madison" and "Gibbons v. Ogden"

John Marshall

21

Power of the Supreme Court to determine if laws passed by Congress are Constitutional. (Marbury v. Madison)

Judicial Review

22

First battle of the American Revolution

Lexington & Concord

23

The idea that government can do only what the Constitution allows it to do.

Limited Government

24

English document that severely limited the power of the king

Magna Carta

25

Court case remembered for instituting "Judicial Review"

Marbury v. Madison

26

Agreement signed by the Pilgrims stating that they would submit to the laws of their government

Mayflower Compact

27

Hamilton & Jefferson argued over whether the US government had the power to create this to manage the $$ of the United States

National Bank

28

Land organized under the Articles of Confederation creating the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

Northwest Ordinance

29

The idea that whoever controls the money controls everything.

Power of the Purse

30

Religious group who colonized the New England area because they wanted to practice their religion freely. (They did NOT, however, offer freedom of religion to those who disagreed with them)

Puritans

31

Religious group that believed all have an "inner light". Found in the Mid-Atlantic states - especially Pennsylvania. Were among the first abolitionists.

Quakers

32

Member of the Massachusetts colony who was exiled for teaching the separation of church & state - went on to found Rhode Island

Roger Williams

33

Idea that all - even those in government - must obey the laws of the land

Rule of Law

34

Term meaning that because England respected the colonies, they left them on their own to run their own affairs.

Salutary neglect

35

Turning point of the Revolutionary War. After this battle, the French helped us because they believed we might actually be able to win.

Saratoga

36

The belief that each branch of government should be given different powers so that no one branch has too much.

Separation of Powers

37

Event when a number of former soldiers, upset that they had not received their military pensions, shut down the local government. This demonstrated the weakness of the Articles of Confederation.

Shay's Rebellion

38

Agreement at the Constitutional Convention that they would not discuss the slave trade or do anything about it for at least 20 years.

Slave Trade Compromise

39

John Locke believed that society held together because of this agreement where the government promised to protect its people and people promised to obey the government.

Social Contract

40

1st Direct tax placed on the colonists during the colonial period. This angered them and led to a boycott

Stamp Act

41

People who interpret the Constitution literally and believe the government can do no more than what it specifically states

Strict Constructionists

42

The group of people formally responsible for electing the President of the United States

The Electoral College

43

Treaty that formally ended the Revolutionary War

Treaty of Paris

44

Statements issued by two states declaring that they would not obey the Alien & Sedition laws

VA & KY Resolutions

45

Plan discussed at the Constitutional Convention that would have given states a varying number of representatives based on each state's population.

VA Plan

46

Event when farmers in the north revolted against the government because of a tax increase on whiskey

Whiskey Rebellion

47

Quaker who founded Pennsylvania

William Penn

48

Final battle of the Revolutionary War

Yorktown

49

One of the two original politcal parties - This one followed the strict Constitutional interpretation practices of Thomas Jefferson.

Democratic Republicans

50

Plan discussed at the Constitutional Convention that would have given all states an equal number of representatives. This was offered as a direct alternative to the VA plan.

NJ Plan

51

People who stretch their interpretation of the Constitution so that they can do whatever is "necessary and proper"

Loose Constructionists