Flashcards in states of matter Deck (30):
- set volume, set shape
- particles are moving, but very slightly back and forth (vibrating)
same melting and boiling point, regular repeating 3D patterns (crystal formation)
- salt, sugar, snow, sand, metals
do not have set melting or boiling points, particles are arranged in random patterns
- plastics, rubber, glass, foams, alloys
- set volume, no set volume
- particles are packed closely together but move about freely
- take on the shape of their container
- no set shape or volume
- take on the shape and volume of whatever container they are placed in
- have the highest amount of kinetic energy
- a liquid’s resistance
- high viscosity: slow flowing liquid, honey, syrup, glue
- low viscosity: fast flowing liquid, water, juice, milk
- brucey: syrup has a high viscosity naturally, when syrup is placed in the fridge, the particles are losing thermal energy meaning that they are acting more like a solid than a liquid. when the syrup is heated in the microwave, the particles are gaining in thermal energy meaning that they are going to move faster. the viscosity is much lower once thermal energy is gained.
the total amount of kinetic and potential energy in a substance
the transfer of thermal energy from one object to another
- heat ALWAYS flows from HOT —> COLD
if a substance is heated up, than it is gaining in thermal energy. if a substance gains thermal energy, then the particles are moving at a faster rate which is increasing the amount of kinetic energy. the rise in kinetic energy causes the temperature to rise as well.
characteristics of both
the average amount of kinetic energy of particles in a given substance
transfer of thermal energy with particles colliding back and forth, DIRECT contact with the heat source
transfer of heat energy through fluids (gases/liquids) ex: why soup is hot after being heated on the stove
the transfer of heat through the emptiness of space, does not need particles in order to transfer heat (sun’s radiation, fire, microwave)
how are molecules affected in each change?
absorbing or releasing thermal energy
- increase force, increase pressure/decrease force, decrease pressure
- increase area, pressure decreases/decrease area, increase in pressure (inverse)
force and area
- atmospheric pressure decreases the further you go up
if the volume of a confined gas remains the same, the pressure of the gas can change depended on the temperature
if volume is decreased, pressure will increase if temperature remains constant. in return, if volume is increased, pressure will decrease.
difference in pressure
the buoyant force of an object is equal to the weight of the fluid that is less dense than itself.
when force is applied to a confined liquid, an increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid.