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Flashcards in Stigmatising places Deck (34):

What are social determinants of health?

- the conditions in which people grow, live, work and age
- shaped by a number of factors such as money, power and resources
- contribute to health inequalities


What is stigma an example of?

- a social determinant of health


Discuss the book "Crap towns"?

- A list of the 50 worst places to live in the UK
- New Statesman said the book is laughing at neglect


What does Hull tell us about stigma?

- Was found the 2nd worst place in the UK in a poll in 2015
- But is the 2017 City of culture
- About perspective


Do quality of life indicators help in stigmatised ares?

- No
- Makes people feel worse about living in their hometown
- Middlesbrough- worst local authority to be a girl


Where in the UK do people most want to live?

- Mostly the south coast
- Varies from place to place
- We all carry around ideas of what a place is like to live in
- Places have different meanings for different people


What do Link and Phelan say about stigmatisation?

- social, economic and political power allows identification of difference and creation of stereotypes
- seperation of labelled people into distinct groups which are excluded and discriminated against
- Stigma is about the powerful othering minorities as inferior


What is spatial vilification?

- Places being symbolically and physically degraded and therefore marked by stigma


How does spatial stigma impact people?

- ppl stigmatised by where they come from and treated differently
- i.e. poor experience of single mother from St Ann's Nottingham in benefit agencies


What is the differences between "places who are stigmatised" and "places which are stigmatised"?

- Is it the place or the people who are stigmatised
- both can resist stigmatisation- people have agency and places change


How did Detroit become stigmatised?

- “Once a national symbol of modernity and industrial progress, Detroit has come to represent the potential for urban decline and the omnipresent dangers when cities are not equipped to transform their economies in the wake of de-industrialization, globalization and outsourcing” (Kelaher et al, 2010)
- Unemployment in Detroit constantly higher than the US average but follows same trends


What's the first impressions of Detroit?

- Trash, burnt houses, dirty, messy
- Stops people from coming back


How have people reacted to the stigmatisation of Detroit?

- Saying that their different to what you think of Detroit people
- Keeping themselves to themselves


How has Merthyr Tydfil been stigmatised?

- Through the media- Daily Mail, Sky News
- Merthyr people shown as ‘stubbornly dependent on benefits’, ‘work-shy’, ‘sick-note capital of Britain’, ‘culture of despair’.
- Shown as poor choices rather than due to austerity
- Impacted by the decline in coal mining


How do people in Merthyr Tydfil feel about the place?

(Thomas, 2016)
- Much more positive
- Lots of social capital, trust and community
- Opportunity
- People resist the stigmatisation of Merthyr
- But young people don't really feel safe there and do identify the social probems


How is Burnley stigmatised?

(Rhodes, 2012)
- As "Asian" where the other is "threatening young asian male"
- Other neighbour hoods are seen as scruffy white, chavvy areas- other is "undeserving white single mother"
- Matter of both race and class
- image is shaped by football- hooligans
- Seen as a "racist hell on earth" (Shahid Malik MP)


Give an example of a stigmatype?

- Chav
- White trash


How does history matter in Burnley?

- Was a typical Lancaster town
- Pakistani men came in to work in the mills (work that the white people didn't want to do)
- When the mills shut down there was widespread unemployment in the pakistani community
- moved into taxi firms and fast food- did very well - resentment from the white people
- Also just general racism- people didn't want to live next to Pakistan people


Where's the friendliest place in the UK?

- Burnley!
- social capital outweighs stigmastisation
(2016 survey)


How does stigma impact health?

- Poorly
- compounds the general lack of opportunities that are associated with area level disadvantage
-Is it positive to live next to people who are doing well- social comparison?


Quantitative data about the link between stigma and health?

(Duncan et al, 2016)
- Found that areas with a bad reputation have a higher BMI and blood pressure
- Direct effect
- Based in New York City
- 116 adults


Link between stigma and self reported health?

(Kelaher et al, 2010)
- People living in a stigmatised neighbourhood are 33% more likely to report poor or only fair health than those living in a non stigmatised neighbourhood
- Australia


How does stigma impact when people move?

(Keene and Padilla, 2010)
- Interviews with 25 African Americans who moved from Chicago to Iowa City (mostly white)
- visible outsiders
- Seen as "bringing the Chicago ghetto with them"
- Constrains opportunities and brings new stresses


How does stigma effect suicide?

(Hatzenbeuhler et al, 2014)
- If your gay and live in a homophobic area your risk of suicide is much higher
- In high stigma areas mean age of suicide was 37.5
- In low stigma areas it's 55.7


Examples of places changing over time?

- London- gentrification- Notting Hill, Brixton
- Lake District now a highly desirable
- Can take a lonf time


What three ways can stigma effect health?

1. Lack of access to resources (i.e. employment discrimination and healthcare)
2. Pyschosocial stress- stigmatised people vilified- poor personal perception- impacting mobility beyond communities and outsider relations
3. Defensive othering-> social isolation and lack of access to community health support


What do Keene and Padillaa say about Stigma?

- reliant on social, economic and political power
- legitimises and maintains social inequality (race and socioeconomic status)
- Stigmatisation of places cannot be seperated from the global power struggle


How does stigma lead to a lack of resources?

- Employers won't employ due to postcode
- Taxi drivers, food deliverers, home health workers and police avoid stigmatised ares
- Lack of access to healthcare


How does race lead to stigmatisation?

- In Chicago predominantly black areas are seen as more disorderly than equally disorderly white areas
- Racial stereotypes ghettoize places
- Spatialises racial inequalities


What does stigma justify according to Rhodes?

- Repealing investment
- Structural violence
- Demoralising and disunited residents


In Burnley which are the wards with highest Asian populations and how are they viewed?

- Daneshouse and Stoneyholme
- Seen as crime ridden, dirty, scruffy and reliant on the dole


What are the 5 levels of the Whitehead rainbow?

- economic cultural and environmental factors
- living and working conditions
- social and community networks
- individual lifestyle factors
- age, sex and constitutional factors


What are Whitehead’s examples of living and working conditions?

- Agriculture and food production
- education
- work environment
- unemployment
- water and sanitation
- healthcare services
- housing


How does stress impact health?

- Increased risk of psychopathology
- Continual wear and tear on the body through repeated adapting to stressors can impact
- brain
- metabolism
- immune system
- cardiovascular health