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Flashcards in Stings, Bites, and Bugs Deck (74)
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1

What two organisms cause Trypanosomiasis?

T. Brucei(African) and T. cruzi (american)

2

Where is Chagas dz found?

Central and South America

3

How is T cruzi transmitted?

Through infected reduviid bugs and occasionally  infected blood

4

What bug is the kissing bug?

Raduviid bug

5

What's unique about the life cycle of Raduviid?

It bites you and then defecates in it

6

What is chagas dz?

Serious systemic disease that primarily affects the autonomic nervous system, heart and GI tract. 

7

What is the Romana sign?

Edema of the palpebral and periocular tissue due to entry through the conjunctiva

8

Describe the acute phase of Chagas dz?

Localized erythema ,swelling regional lymphadenopathy (chagoma)
Romana Sign- Painless edema of palpebrae occurs in 80% of cases infected this route
Fever, malaise, anorexia, edema of face and lower extremities

 

9

Acute Phase Chagas disease

10

Describe the chronic phase of chagas dz

Occurs many years to decades later. Cardiac manifestations including Cardiac failure, arrythmias, heartblock and Gastrointestinal manifestations: Megacolon, Megaesophagus

11

Chronic chagas dz

12

Tx for Chagas dz?

Nifurtimox (acute phase) and Benzimidazole (more effective acute phase)

13

How are T. bruceii transmitted?

Tsetse flies

14

What are the names of the two African Trypanosomiasis causing species?

West Africa- T. brucei gambiense
East Africa- T. brucei rhodesiense

15

What are the clinical manifestations of trypanosomiasis?

Trypanosome Chancre, enlargement of lymph nodes, neurologic manifestations include: irritability, personality changes and day time somnolence, restlessness, insomnia

16

Trypanosome Chancre

17

African TrypanosomiasisTreatment?

Suramin=DOC for early stages; Pentamidine; other organic arsenicals; and Eflornithine which is effective for both hemolymphangitic and CNS involvement

18

What are synonyms for Onchocerciasis?

River blindness, Enfernedad de robles, Erysipelas de la costa

19

What is onchoceriasis?

Filarial infestation that predominantly affects cutaneous and ocular tissue. Caused by Onchocerca volvulus

20

How is the dz onchocerciasis transmitted?

Simulium black fly

21

Where is onchocerciasis found?

Exclusively in humans living in tropical African belt and south America

22

What is the clinical picture of onchocerciasis?

Subcutaneous nodules that are located over bony prominences. Intermittent intensely pruritic dermatitis. Microfilariae in conjunctivae move through cornea into the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. Conjunctivitis, sclerosing keratitis, uveitis ,optic atrophy and glaucoma. Blindness in severe cases

23

What does chronic onchocerciasis look like?

Thickened , wrinkled skin with  hyperpigmentation (lizard or elephant skin)

24

Onchocerciasis

25

Onchocerciasis

26

OnchocerciasisTreatment?

1. Ivermectin: in 1 week microfilariae disappear from skin
 and 3 months microfilariae disappear from eye
2. Nodulectomy
3. Older drugs : suramin and DEC associated with severe hypersensitivity and dangerous toxic reactions
(Mazzotti reaction)

27

What dz is know as Tunga penetrans, Chigoe flea, jiggerflea, burrowing flea, sand flea, Pique, Nigua?

Tungiasis

28

Where is tungiasis found?

 Endemic in Central and South America, the Caribbean Islands, Africa, Pakistan and India

29

Tungiasis dz?

Impregnated female flea burrows  into skin causing 1 cm nodule and erythema. Rarely associated with gangrene, tetanus and auto amputations

30

Tungiasis