What two organisms cause Trypanosomiasis?
T. Brucei(African) and T. cruzi (american)
Where is Chagas dz found?
Central and South America
How is T cruzi transmitted?
Through infected reduviid bugs and occasionally infected blood
What bug is the kissing bug?
What's unique about the life cycle of Raduviid?
It bites you and then defecates in it
What is chagas dz?
Serious systemic disease that primarily affects the autonomic nervous system, heart and GI tract.
What is the Romana sign?
Edema of the palpebral and periocular tissue due to entry through the conjunctiva
Describe the acute phase of Chagas dz?
Localized erythema ,swelling regional lymphadenopathy (chagoma)
Romana Sign- Painless edema of palpebrae occurs in 80% of cases infected this route
Fever, malaise, anorexia, edema of face and lower extremities
Acute Phase Chagas disease
Describe the chronic phase of chagas dz
Occurs many years to decades later. Cardiac manifestations including Cardiac failure, arrythmias, heartblock and Gastrointestinal manifestations: Megacolon, Megaesophagus
Chronic chagas dz
Tx for Chagas dz?
Nifurtimox (acute phase) and Benzimidazole (more effective acute phase)
How are T. bruceii transmitted?
What are the names of the two African Trypanosomiasis causing species?
West Africa- T. brucei gambiense
East Africa- T. brucei rhodesiense
What are the clinical manifestations of trypanosomiasis?
Trypanosome Chancre, enlargement of lymph nodes, neurologic manifestations include: irritability, personality changes and day time somnolence, restlessness, insomnia
Suramin=DOC for early stages; Pentamidine; other organic arsenicals; and Eflornithine which is effective for both hemolymphangitic and CNS involvement
What are synonyms for Onchocerciasis?
River blindness, Enfernedad de robles, Erysipelas de la costa
What is onchoceriasis?
Filarial infestation that predominantly affects cutaneous and ocular tissue. Caused by Onchocerca volvulus
How is the dz onchocerciasis transmitted?
Simulium black fly
Where is onchocerciasis found?
Exclusively in humans living in tropical African belt and south America
What is the clinical picture of onchocerciasis?
Subcutaneous nodules that are located over bony prominences. Intermittent intensely pruritic dermatitis. Microfilariae in conjunctivae move through cornea into the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. Conjunctivitis, sclerosing keratitis, uveitis ,optic atrophy and glaucoma. Blindness in severe cases
What does chronic onchocerciasis look like?
Thickened , wrinkled skin with hyperpigmentation (lizard or elephant skin)
1. Ivermectin: in 1 week microfilariae disappear from skin
and 3 months microfilariae disappear from eye
3. Older drugs : suramin and DEC associated with severe hypersensitivity and dangerous toxic reactions
What dz is know as Tunga penetrans, Chigoe flea, jiggerflea, burrowing flea, sand flea, Pique, Nigua?
Where is tungiasis found?
Endemic in Central and South America, the Caribbean Islands, Africa, Pakistan and India
Impregnated female flea burrows into skin causing 1 cm nodule and erythema. Rarely associated with gangrene, tetanus and auto amputations