Flashcards in Strengths and Weaknesses of Collectivisation Deck (21):
Political Strength: Removed Stalin's last political rivals
eg. Bukharin, Rykov because they supported the NEP. It discredited the Right
Agricultural strengths: scope of collectivisation
93% of peasants households collectivised by 1937
Weakness: violent opposition
Civil war in the countryside
Agricultural weakness: peasants destroyed produce
They burned arms and crops and killed their livestock (which added to milk and meat shortage) rather than hand them over. Kulaks encouraged peasants to. The amount of cattle halved from 1928-33
Weakness: peasant deaths
Over 10 million died as a result of deportation
Industrial Strength: Peasants in towns by 1939
19 million had migrated although there was a population imbalance in rural areas.
Political strength: Control over countryside
By 1930 village councils were replaced by a chairman who was a Communist Party member, and party activists controled kolkhoz's/collected grain. Red Army bombed troublesome villages.
Ind/Ag Weaknesses but Political Strength: Mechanisation 1940
Only one Machine Tractor Station for every 40 collective farms: mechanisation was not widespread. However they gave political lectures on the benefit of socialism.
Agricultural Weakness: production fell dramatically
During the initial disruption and didn't recover until late 1930s. In 1941 production was still at similar levels to 1928
Agricultural Weakness: Holodomor famine 1932-4
Estimated 7 million deaths, demoralised peasants. 44% of grain was taken from affected areas.
Industrial strength: exports
Grain production enabled exports to pay for technology throughout the 1930s and there were secure supplies to the towns and Red Army.
Political strength: class differences abolished
Nepment gone, kulaks gone by mid 30s: sent to labour camps, executed or exiled. Apart from small private plots, Capitalism (private enterprise etc) abolished.
Agricultural weakness: peasants unenthusiastic
Those who didn't want to go to collectives were classified as a kulak to fill quotas, or were misclassified anyway.
Political: party objective
Had always been the long term objective, although Lenin thought it should be achieved voluntarily.
Social strength: provision of schools and basic health services
Peasant literacy improved
Agricultural weakness: loss of skilled workers
The loss of kulaks meant loss of skill so less efficiency
Weakness: peasant hostility
Believed it was a 'new serfdom' it made them workers rather than landowners
Agricultural: grain production (mil tonnes)
1928: 73 1932:69.6 1935:75
Agricultural: cattle (mil heads)
1928: 70.5 1932: 11.6 1935: 22.6
Weakness: Internal passports
Stopped peasants moving into towns for food resembling serfdom