Strengths and Weaknesses of Collectivisation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Strengths and Weaknesses of Collectivisation Deck (21):
1

Political Strength: Removed Stalin's last political rivals

eg. Bukharin, Rykov because they supported the NEP. It discredited the Right

2

Agricultural strengths: scope of collectivisation

93% of peasants households collectivised by 1937

3

Weakness: violent opposition

Civil war in the countryside

4

Agricultural weakness: peasants destroyed produce

They burned arms and crops and killed their livestock (which added to milk and meat shortage) rather than hand them over. Kulaks encouraged peasants to. The amount of cattle halved from 1928-33

5

Weakness: peasant deaths

Over 10 million died as a result of deportation

6

Industrial Strength: Peasants in towns by 1939

19 million had migrated although there was a population imbalance in rural areas.

7

Political strength: Control over countryside

By 1930 village councils were replaced by a chairman who was a Communist Party member, and party activists controled kolkhoz's/collected grain. Red Army bombed troublesome villages.

8

Ind/Ag Weaknesses but Political Strength: Mechanisation 1940

Only one Machine Tractor Station for every 40 collective farms: mechanisation was not widespread. However they gave political lectures on the benefit of socialism.

9

Agricultural Weakness: production fell dramatically

During the initial disruption and didn't recover until late 1930s. In 1941 production was still at similar levels to 1928

10

Agricultural Weakness: Holodomor famine 1932-4

Estimated 7 million deaths, demoralised peasants. 44% of grain was taken from affected areas.

11

Industrial strength: exports

Grain production enabled exports to pay for technology throughout the 1930s and there were secure supplies to the towns and Red Army.

12

Political strength: class differences abolished

Nepment gone, kulaks gone by mid 30s: sent to labour camps, executed or exiled. Apart from small private plots, Capitalism (private enterprise etc) abolished.

13

Agricultural weakness: peasants unenthusiastic

Those who didn't want to go to collectives were classified as a kulak to fill quotas, or were misclassified anyway.

14

Political: party objective

Had always been the long term objective, although Lenin thought it should be achieved voluntarily.

15

Social strength: provision of schools and basic health services

Peasant literacy improved

16

Agricultural weakness: loss of skilled workers

The loss of kulaks meant loss of skill so less efficiency

17

Weakness: peasant hostility

Believed it was a 'new serfdom' it made them workers rather than landowners

18

Agricultural: grain production (mil tonnes)

1928: 73 1932:69.6 1935:75

19

Agricultural: cattle (mil heads)

1928: 70.5 1932: 11.6 1935: 22.6

20

Weakness: Internal passports

Stopped peasants moving into towns for food resembling serfdom

21

Political strength: propaganda

Used kulak's slaughtering etc as propaganda to encourage peasants to turn them in.