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Pathophysiology > Stress > Flashcards

Flashcards in Stress Deck (40):
1

What is stress?

a state of heightened arousal
-it comes in many forms and for many reasons; but all of them have in common a set of mechanisms known as the stress response

2

Eustress

-moderate or normal psychological stress interpreted as being beneficial for the experiencer

3

Distress

aversive state in which a person is unable to completely adapt to stressors and their resulting stress and shows maladaptive behaviors

4

Physiological stressors

arise when homeostasis control mechanisms are challenged (physcial, chemical, biological, social, cultural)

5

psychological stressors

are whatever the person thinks they are

6

What are some general effects of stress?

1. trigger certain illnesses
2. reduces the body's ability to fight an illness
3. make some diseases harder to control

7

Homeostasis

aims to maintain "a set point" of bodily functions
ex: oxygen level, pH, blood pressure

8

Allostasis

aims to maintain a "set point" in changing environments

9

General adaptation syndrome

general stress response to any noxious stimulus
-includes 3 stages

10

What are the 3 stages of GAS?

1. Alarm reaction
2. Stage of resistance
3. Stage of exhaustion

11

What happens in the alarm reaction?

Fight or flight response

12

What happens in the stage of resistance?

adaptation, body returns to homeostasis

13

What happens during the stage of exhaustion?

Not able to return to homeostasis

14

What is the function of the hypothalamus in the GAS?

-Monitor of internal and external environment
-activate GAS
-secretes corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)

15

What parts of the body do CRH affect?

1. The sympathetic nervous system which affects the inner portion of the adrenal medulla
2. the pituitary gland which affects the outer portion of the adrenal medulla

16

Function of catecholamines and examples

-sympathetic activation
-norepinephrine
-epinephrine

17

Function of cortisol and related glucocorticoids

pituitary gland affects the adrenal medulla which has metabolic effects

18

Risk factors

tendencies that promote the development of the disease

19

your patient's red blood cell is slightly elevated today. This might be explained by

-gender difference
-situational factors
-illness

20

What is the etiology of strep throat

-streptococcal infection

21

Charlie's hand is tangled in a rope, cutting off blood flow to his hand. At what time are the cells from Charlie injured

-ischemia
-reperfusion
-any injury longer than a minute causes

22

A hypoxic injury is caused by a lack of

ATP

23

You are asked to participate in a research project on myocardial infractions in a rat model. Which model closely represents the ischemic injury?

Increase of intracellular concentration of Na+ and Ca++

24

Which of the following is not a change experienced by typical cells undergoing apoptosis?

Membrane bursting

25

What is a physiological effect of chemical stress mediators:

catecholamine

26

What are the two main subsets of catecholamine receptors?

-alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic receptors

27

What do agonsists do?

mimics alpha or beta-adrenergic recpetors used in disease state

28

What do antagonists do?

-block alpha- or beta-adrenergic receptors used in disease state

29

alpha 1 receptors site of actions

-smooth muscle
-heart
-liver

30

alpha 2 sites of action

-platelets, vascular smooth muscle, nerve termini, and pancreatic islets

31

alpha 1 effects

vasoconstriction, intestinal relaxation, uterine contraction and pupillary dilation

32

alpha 2 effects

platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of NE release and of insulin secretion

33

B 1 sites of action

heart

34

B 2 sites of action

lungs, gastrointestinal tract, liver, uterus, vascular smooth and skeletal muscle

35

B 1 effects

tachycardia

36

B 2 effects

brochodilation, smooth muscle relaxation, sphincter constriction

37

stage of reistance/apadtation

-all catecholamine responses are still exhibited
-cortisol reactions are also prominenet
-the immune responses during the stage of adaptation are adaptive
-aldosterone encourages salt and water retention to help raise blood pressure
-blood glucose and fatty acid levels are elevated

38

Coping mechanisms are ________

very unique to everyone

39

Stage of exhaustion

-coping is ineffective
--stress response continues
-allostatic load

40

Allostatic overload

physiological consequences of chronic exposure to fluctuating or heightened neural or neuroendocrine response that results from repeated or chronic stress