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Flashcards in Stress & Fatigue Deck (35):
1

Define Stress

the nonspecific response of the body to any demand placed on it

2

Is stress good or bad

Stress is neither good nor bad. It is the individual who defines the stress as good or bad. The same events can have different meanings, and therefore create "different stress," for any 2 individuals

3

Physiological stressors (DEATH)

Drugs
Exhaustion
Alcohol
Tobacco
Hypoglycemia

4

What is hypoglycemia and its effects?

Low blood sugar and causes nervousness, shakiness, perspiration, dizziness, sleepiness, confusion, difficulty speaking, and feeling weak

5

Necessary abilities for crewmember performance

- Psychomotor abilities
- Attention
- Memory
- Judgment and decision making and prioritization of tasks
- Crew communication

6

Psychomotor abilities include

hand-eye coordination, muscular coordination, and strength

7

Self-imposed stress and aviation-specific stress have the what effects on Psychomotor abilities

Psychomotor abilities decline. For example, tracking abilities decrease, with a tendency toward more time off-target, over-corrections, and less smooth movements

8

Memory abilities decline during stress in which ways

Oversimplification Speed/accuracy tradeoffs

9

How does stress compromise the Judgment and Decision-making abilities

Judgment and decision-making abilities may be compromised by stress, with inexperienced crew members tending to make a disorganized assessment of alternatives, to rush to a decision, and to seek premature closure

10

Does stress cause greater or decreased tolerance for error?

greater

11

Self-imposed stress and aviation-specific stress have the what effects on attention abilities

- Perceptual Tunneling
- Cognitive Tunneling
- Task Shedding

12

The narrowing of sensory information processed by the brain (i.e. visual field) that can result from both emotional stress and cognitive workload

Perceptual Tunneling For example, a pilot may attend to the most significant stimuli (brightest light, loudest noise) at the expense of other perceptual cues

13

The cognitive abilities affected by the narrowing of what is considered important in the attention field is...

"Cognitive Tunneling" An example would be a pilot who does not appropriately monitor his airspeed because he is intently focusing on making the proper radio call at the proper time

14

How is tunneling carried to the extreme of task shedding

"Task Shedding" is tunneling carried to the extreme. This is when entire tasks are completely abandoned. For example, tunneling may be missing a radio call while on approach with a caution light illuminated, while task shedding is forgetting to do the pre-landing checks altogether

15

What is the best way to deal with stress

Minimize stressors
Practice good crew and cockpit communication
Change your thinking
Learn to relax
Ventilate stress
 

16

Combat and Operational Stress include

Combat and Operational Stress include "all the physiological and emotional stresses encountered as a direct result of the dangers and mission demands of combat" and other operational environments

17

Adaptive Stress Reactions include

i. Strong personal trust, loyalty, cohesiveness among peers ii. Personal trust, loyalty, and cohesiveness between leaders and subordinates iii. Esprit de corps or identification with the larger unit iv. For aircrews, unit cohesion binds crews together to perform the mission in spite of danger. Crewmembers know and trust their peers and leaders and understand their dependence on each other v. Strong sense of responsibility toward the unit and its members

18

Maladaptive Stress Reactions include what two categories

1) Misconduct Stress Behaviors 2) Combat and Operational Stress Reaction

19

The stress reaction that may look like symptoms of mental illness is

Combat and Operational Stress Reactions. Although they may look like symptoms of mental illness, they are typically transient and resolve within hours or days.

20

Factors that may decrease one's vulnerability to combat stress (4 C's)

Competence in your work Confidence in your abilities Cohesion (group) Control or perceived control

21

Define Fatigue

State of feeling tired, weary, or sleepy

22

5 stages of sleep

Stage 1: 5 - 10 minutes transition into sleep
Stage 2: light sleep
Stage 3/4: deep sleep "slow wave", cell rebuilding Stage 5: REM

23

What is the Circadian cycle

Internal clock which regulates biological functions, to include alertness

24

According to the Circadian cycle, you are at your peak alertness between...

0800 and 1200

25

According to the Circadian cycle, you are at your lowest level of alertness between...

1300 and 1500

26

Mental fatigue is

The feeling of weariness that results from repetitive performance of nonphysical tasks it can be caused or made worse by anxiety, apprehension, and stress

27

The severity of fatigue can be modified by psychological factors such as

the amount of time soldiers expect to be working, the expected difficulty of the work, and the expected reward

28

Signs and symptoms of fatigue include

a. Impaired attention and concentration
b. Feeling or appearing dull and sluggish
c. General attempt to conserve energy by reducing body movements to a minimum
d. Feeling or appearing careless, uncoordinated, confused, and irritable
e. Staring into space. Eye blink frequency will be greatly reduced in aircrew members who are extremely fatigued
f. Increased physical or health complaints, such as headaches, stomachaches, loss of appetite

29

Effects of fatigue on Reaction time performance

Reaction time increases: a. Increased errors in timing and accuracy b. Not as "smooth" on the controls c. Slow and irregular movements

30

Complete loss of awareness and failure to respond to any external stimuli due to increased lapses of attention, also known as

Micro-sleeps a. Micro-sleeps may last from 1 to 10 seconds b. Micro-sleeps increase in frequency and duration as sleep deprivation increases

31

Effects of fatigue on memory

Memory is diminished, new learning declines

32

What are the 4 types of stressors P,E,P,C,

 

  1. Psychosocial: Life events, work, family issues, illness
  2. Environmental: Altitude, Speed, Temp, Aircraft
  3. Physiological: Drugs, Exhaustion, Alcohol, Tobacco, Hypoglycemia
  4. Cognitive: How one perceives a situation (pessimism, obsession, failure to focus on the present

33

The two physical changes of stress that we control are?

Shortness of Breath

Muscle Tension

34

What are the 4 C's of coping with combat stress?

Competence
Confidence
Cohecency
Control

35

How long does it take to fully recover from sleep inertia?

20 -30 minutes