Structural Disorders and Neoplasms of the Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

OB Test 4 > Structural Disorders and Neoplasms of the Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Structural Disorders and Neoplasms of the Reproductive System Deck (32):

Alterations in pelvic support

Uterine displacement and prolapse
Cystocele and rectocele
-Vaginal pessary
-Surgical repair
Urinary incontinence
Genital fistulas


Ovarian Cysts

Follicular cysts
Corpus luteum cysts
Theca-lutein cysts
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
Other benign ovarian cysts and neoplasms - Dermoid cysts, Ovarian fibromas
(women prone to cysts can be on birth control pills)


--> Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

cysts on ovary
increase levels of estrogen, testosterone
increase hair on face, irregular cycles, harder to get pregnant



helps to hold uterus where its supposed to be


Uterine polyps

Endometrial or cervical in origin
Tumors on pedicles (stalks) arising from the mucosa
Polyps rarely recur after removal
Most common in multiparous women older than age 40



Also called fibroid tumors, fibromas, myomas, or fibromyomas
Slow-growing benign tumors arising from the muscle tissue of the uterus
Rarely become malignant
Growth influenced by ovarian hormones
Spontaneously shrink after menopause
Most women are asymptomatic
(cause dysfunctional uterus bleeding)


Leiomyomas management

Medical management - Medications, Uterine artery embolization (UAE)
Surgical management - Laser surgery, Myomectomy, Hysterectomy


Bartholin cysts

Most common benign lesions of the vulva
Caused by obstruction of the Bartholin duct, causing it to enlarge
Recurrence in women is common; permanent opening for drainage may be recommended - Marsupialization****



Vulvar pain


Cancer of the endometrium

Most common malignancy of reproductive system
Hormone imbalance most significant risk factor
Metastasis through lymphatic system in pelvis and through blood to liver, lungs, and brain
- CA-125 antigen
- Transvaginal ultrasound


Cancer of the ovary

Second most frequently occurring reproductive cancer
Symptoms vague
Definitive screening tests do not exist
Often diagnosed in advanced stage
(diagnosised in late staged)


ovary cancer tx

dictated by stage of disease at time of initial diagnosis
Surgical removal
Cytoreductive surgery
Antineoplastic surgery


Cancer of the Cervix

Third most common reproductive cancer
Incidence of invasive cancer has decreased 50% over past 30 years
Incidence of preinvasive cancer has increased
Most reliable method to detect preinvasive cancer is the Pap test
Diagnosis identified by use of: Colposcopy, Biopsy, Conization
(caused by HPV 70-80%)
(pap smear to test: guidelines: sexually active 3 years later or 21)


Cancer of the Cervix management

Laser ablation
Electrosurgical excision


invasive cancer of the cervix

Radical hysterectomy
External radiation therapy
Internal radiation therapy
Pelvic exenteration


cancer of the vulva

Fourth most commonly occurring gynecologic cancer—5% of female genital malignancies
Grows slowly, extends slowly, and metastasizes fairly late
Survival rates are greater than 90% for all stages if nodes are negative
Most common site for vulvar lesions is on the labia majora


cancer of the vulva

Laser surgery
Electrosurgical excision


cancer of the vagina

Vaginal carcinomas account for less than 2% of gynecologic malignancy
Peak incidence from 50 to 70 years of age
Most lesions are squamous cell carcinomas
May be caused by chronic vaginal irritation, vaginal trauma, and genital viruses


cancer of the uterine tubes

Primary carcinoma of the uterine tube is rare
Peak incidence between ages 50 and 60 years
Cause unknown


cancer and pregnancy

Occurs with relative infrequency during the reproductive years
Therapeutic issues are complex
-Continue or terminate pregnancy
-Timing of therapies such as chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery are affected


Most frequent types of cancer that occur during pregnancy

Breast cancer
Cervical cancer
Leukemia and lymphomas
Thyroid cancer
Colon cancer


Other gynecologic cancers

Cancer of the vulva
Cancer of the vagina
Cancer of the uterus
Cancer of the uterine tube
Cancer of the ovary


cancer therapy and pregnancy

Timing of therapy
Radiation therapy


pregnancy after cancer treatment

Increase in the number of childhood and adolescent cancer survivors
Delay of 2 years from end of therapy to conception is advised


Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD)

Encompasses spectrum of disorders arising from the placental trophoblast
Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia refers to persistent trophoblastic tissue presumed to be malignant
Recognized as most curable gynecologic malignancy


Key Points

Gynecologic disorders diminish quality of life for women and their families
Structural disorders of the uterus and vagina related to pelvic relaxation and urinary incontinence may be a result of delayed childbearing, but they are also seen in young or childless women


Key Points

Bladder training and pelvic muscle exercises significantly decrease or relieve mild to moderate urinary incontinence
Development of neoplasms can have significant physical and emotional effect on woman/family
Abnormal uterine bleeding is most common symptom of leiomyomas or fibroid tumors


Key Points

Various alternatives to hysterectomy exist for structural and benign disorders of the uterus - Women need to be informed about the risks and benefits
Endometrial cancer is the most common reproductive system malignancy
Hysterectomy is the usual treatment for early-stage endometrial cancer


Key Points

HPV is primary cause of cervical cancer and is linked to vulvar cancer in women younger than 40
Squamocolumnar junction is important landmark identified with neoplastic changes of the cervix
Preinvasive cancer of the cervix may be treated with electrosurgical excision, cryotherapy, and laser therapy to save the structure of the cervix


Key Points

Combination external and internal radiation therapy is successful in treating early stages of cancer of the cervix
Pap test detects about 90% of early cervical dysplasias
Cancer of the ovary causes more deaths than any other female genital tract cancer


Key Points

Control exposure to radiation in three ways
Increase distance from radiation source- Limit time of exposure, Use lead shielding, Cancer is relatively infrequent during pregnancy: 1:1000


Key Points

Radiation or chemotherapy treatment of the pregnant woman with cancer places fetus at risk for death, miscarriage, teratogenesis, growth and development alterations
Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms highly curable but require close monitoring of hCG levels