Structure and function of the human nervous system- Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Structure and function of the human nervous system- Part 1 Deck (24):
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Rostral

anterior- 'toward the beak'

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Caudal

posterior- 'toward the tail'

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Dorsal

superior- 'toward the back'

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Ventral

inferior- 'toward the belly'

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Lateral

toward the side

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Medial

toward the midline

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Ipsilateral

structures on the same side of the body (in Latin 'ipse' means same)

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Contralateral

structures on the opposite side of the body (in Latin 'contra' means against)

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Central Nervous System

includes the brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous System

includes the cranial nerves, spinal nerves and peripheral ganglia

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PNS the somatic system

connects the CNS to voluntary muscles

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PNS autonomic nervous system

connects the CNS to non-voluntray muscles and glands

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Sympathetic system

arousing; prepares the body for activity and therefore expends energy

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Parasympathetic system

calming; prepares the body for restoration of energy

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The meninges

Three layered sheath surrounding the brain and spinal cord
1. Dura mater ('tough mother')- the thick outer layer which is very smooth
2. Arachnoid mater ('spider like mother')- the middle layer, which has a weblike appearance due to the protrusions called arachnoid trabeculae, and is soft and spongy
3. Pia mater ('pious mater')- delicate inner layer, which follows every fold of brain tissue

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subarachnoid space

between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater is the subarachnoid space, which holds the cerebrospinal fluid that bathes the brain and spinal cord, and which contains the main arteries that cover the surface of the brain and spinal cord

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cerebrospinal fluid

1. protects the brain
2. reduces weight and shock
3. flows through the ventricles
4. the choroid plexus is constantly in production of this fluid

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cerebrospinal fluid pathway

1. CSF is produced by the choroid plexus located in the lateral ventricles
2. From the lateral ventricles CSF flows down to the third ventricle then through the cerebral aqueduct to the fourth ventricle
3. exits via a set of openings in the subarachnoid space, before being reabsorbed back into the bloodstream via the arachnoid villae

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Development of the CNS

Forebrain- develops into the two lateral ventricles and the third ventricle
Midbrain- narrows to form the cerebral aqueduct
Hindbrain- becomes the fourth ventricle

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neural migration

1. founder cells in the ventricular zone of the neural tube give rise to cells of the CNS
2. radial glia guide neurons during development
3. cortical development ceases with apoptosis

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Primary somatosensory cortex

a vertical strip of cortex located immediately prosterior to the central sulcus, called the post central gyrus. It receives sensory information from the skin (temperature, touch and pain). Different regions of the skin surface are represented by different areas along the strip of cortex, forming a somatotopic map

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Primary visual cortex

an area of cortex that occupies the medial and lateral parts of the occipital cortex at the back of the brain. It receives sensory information from the retina (the photosensitive layer at the back of the eye). Different regions of the retina are represented by different areas within the primary visual cortex, forming a retinotopic map

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Primary auditory cortex

an area of cortex that occupies the superior part of the temporal lobe. It receives sensory information from the cochlea. Sounds of different frequencies (e.g. low versus high tones) are represented by different areas within the primary auditory cortex, forming a tonotopic map

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Primary motor cortex

a vertical strip fo cortex located immediately anterior to the central sulcus, called the pre central gyrus. Different parts of the primary motor cortex sends signals that control different groups of voluntary muscles (e.g. hands, feet, lips). Like the primary sensory cortices, the primary motor cortex controls muscles on the opposite (contralateral) side of the body