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Flashcards in study guide 2 Deck (75):
1

sound can be defined in 2 ways

1. psychological : act of hearing
2.physical : physical movement of air molecules within the environment

2

a physical phenomenon which describes a movement or vibration of an elastic medium without permanent displacement of the particles

sound

3

the disturbance of air molecules striking other molecules creates

waves

4

these waves or vibration of air molecules are what the _______ detects when we hear

auditory system

5

the _____ of the medium the molecules are in determine the characteristics of the sound

elasticity

6

characteristics of sound

mass
force
inertia
elasticity

7

quantity of matter present ; air molecules have ____

mass

8

a push or pull on an object; has both magnitude and direction

force

9

the tendency to resist any change in motion

inertia

10

all bodies remain at rest or in a state of uniform motion unless other forces act in opposition

newton's first law

11

______is the tendency of an object's resistance to deformity and its return to the rest position

elasticity

12

___ are made up of successive compressions and rarefactions

waves

13

vibration of sound molecules

compressions
rarefactions

14

types of waves

transverse
longitudinal
sine

15

the molecular motion in TWs is perpendicular to the direction of wave motion. i.e. pebble thrown in water

transverse waves

16

important to understand sound; example would be the motion of wheat blowing in a field

longitudinal waves

17

used to graphically and mathematically explain a sound wave since it can not be seen. EX of a bucket filled with sand on the end of a string is used in many texts

sine waves

18

this succession of molecules being shoved together and pulled apart create a motion called

waves

19

successive compression and rarefactions make up ______

sound waves

20

number of complete cycles per unit time

frequency

21

an object's distance from rest to maximal displacement

amplitude

22

around of time needed to complete on cycle of vibration

period

23

timing of compressions and rarefactions of wave

phase

24

the human ear responds to frequencies between _________ Hz

20 and 20,000 Hz

25

the frequencies between __________ are the most critical for the perception of speech

300 and 3000 Hz

26

as the compliance of a body increases the frequency at which the body is most easily made to vibrate

decreases

27

systems that have more _______vibrate better at high frequencies

elasticity

28

subjective impression of the power of a sound; the unit of measurement is the sone

loudness

29

the subjective impression of the highness or lowness of a sound; the psychological correlate of Hz

pitch

30

length of time

duration

31

the extent of the vibratory mass from its position of rest to that point furthest from the position of rest

amplitude

32

how quickly the wave travels from one point to another

sound velocity

33

velocity of sound in air is

1130 feet per second/ 344 meters per second

34

the ______ of a sound wave is the speed with which it travels form the source to another point

velocity

35

the _____the medium, the faster sound will travel

denser

36

sound travels slower at higher elevation because the ________

air molecules are farther apart ( air is thinner)

37

as density increases the speed of sound though the material

increases

38

is the distance between any point on a sine wave to the same point on another cycle of the wave; the distance between two rarefactions or condensations

wavelength

39

wavelength is inversely proportional to ___

frequency

40

the study of the relationship between physical stimuli and the psychological responses in which they give

psychoacoustics

41

ability to determine what direction the sound originated

localization

42

the reflection of sound from a surface; as this increases, localization ability decreases

reverberation

43

a sound that is made up of a number of different sinusoides, each with a different frequency; Speech is an example

complex sounds

44

each mass has a frequency at which it most naturally vibrates ; a body can e set into motion by frequencies other than this

resonance

45

repeat over time (as in speech or music ) will naturally have a fundamental frequency

periodic sounds

46

(non repeating sound) will not have a fundamental frequency

aperiodic

47

in a periodic complex sound, all frequencies are whole number multiples of the fundamental ; tones which occur above the fundamental Hs are called harmonic or overtones

harmonics

48

the mathematical breakdown of any complex wave into its components parts, consisting of simple sinusoids of different frequencies. the fundamental Hz of the complex wave determine the harmonics

fourier analysis

49

the sum components of a complex wave

spectrum

50

a tone of only one Hz

pure tone

51

highly complex sound, produced by random oscillation, aperiodic

noise

52

the amount of sound energy per unit of area

intensity

53

the relationship in time between two or more waves

phase

54

the intensity of a sound wave

described as decibels (dB)

55

Is a ratio
utilizes a logarithm
nonlinear
may be expressed in terms of various reference levels, which must be specified
is a relative unit of measure

important information about dB

56

audiologist and acousticians use________ rather than intensity terms

Sound pressure level (spl)

57

the lowest sound intensity that stimulates normal hearing; different pressure amounts are required to stimulate zero hearing level at different frequencies

hearing level (HL)

58

the level at which the tone is so soft that it can be perceived only 50% of the time it is presented

threshold of a pure tone

59

the ability to determine the specific location of a sound source; complex phenomenon resulting from the interaction of both ears

localization

60

how is localization possible

because of relative intensities of sounds and their times of arrival at the two ears

61

when two sounds are heard simultaneously, the intensity of one sound may be sufficient to cause the other to be inaudible. this change in the threshold of a sound caused by a second sound with which it coexists is called ____

masking

62

the noise that causes the interference is called the

masker

63

resonance characteristics are defined by

impedance

64

the ______ of a medium is the opposition it presents to the transmission of acoustic energy

impedance

65

how is hearing measured?

with an audiometer

66

allows us to select the frequency we want to present to the test ear;

frequency select

67

allows the user to select the loudness of the tone presented ; typically will range from -10 to around 100 dB HL

intensity (dB hL) Level

68

allows us to select the type of signal we want to present to the ear; we will select from tone, white noise, narrow band noise, speech, or warbled tone

stimulus type

69

correct earphone over the correct ear

red on right and blue on left

70

allows us to choose in which mode the stimulus will be delivered to the patient or test ear

transducer

71

when activated, enables the audiometer to present stimulus simultaneously through both channels of the audiometer with the depressing of either of the stimulus present buttons

interlock or reverse

72

this feature allows the clinician to interrupt testing and speak to the patient without changing any protocols on the audiometer or the need to enter the booth

talk-over

73

allows you to hear the patient while in the sound booth via a microphone

talkback

74

speech can be delivered to the patient either by live voice, tape, or CD presentation; live voice requires the least amount of time;
tape recordings provide for the highest degree of reliability and accuracy

speech stimulus

75

used to measure sound pressure levels in the environment

sound level meters