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Flashcards in Study Guide Deck (32):
1

What is asexual reproduction?

is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only

2

What is one advantage to reproducing asexually?

- No time finding a
mate (less energy)
- All of your alleles are
passed on (more
genetic representation
in next generation)
- Fast reproduction

3

What does haploid mean?

Number of chromosomes in a gamete

4

What process produces haploid cells?

Meiosis

5

What is one difference between mitosis and meiosis

Meiosis has two rounds of genetic separation (8 steps) and cellular division while mitosis only has one (4 steps)

6

What is one method of asexual reproduction

fission, budding, fragmentation

7

What are the phases recognized for Meiosis?

1. Prophase
2. Metaphase
3. Anaphase
4. Telophase
5. Repeat

8

Genetic information can be moved between homologous chromosomes. What is the process called and when does it occur in meiosis?

Crossing Over and Prophase

9

Sister chromatids line up along the center of the cell, what phase does this occur in?

Metaphase II

10

Crossing over provides new combinations of alleles; explain how this could be advantageous.

It increases genetic diversity.

11

What is independent assortment? And in what phase of meiosis is it relevant?

Individual hereditary factors (chromosomes) are inherited freely (independent) of one another. Therefore, traits on different chromosomes have an
equal chance of occurring together.
Metaphase I

12

What prominent figure in biology got inheritance wrong and thought it was a result of blending?

Charles Darwin

13

What proposed by the particulate inheritance theory?

genes determine the phenotypes that are passed on from parents to offspring across generations.

14

How can particulate inheritance explain traits that appear to blend?

That the parents could produce a blending F1, but the F2 could have an outcome of the same trait of the parents

15

What is a genotype?

Individual’s genetic composition

16

What is a phenotype?

Visible characteristics of an individual
• Interaction of genotype & environment

17

Can different genotypes produce the same phenotype?

Yes

18

What is meant by linkage in genetics?

• A violation of independent assortment
• Genes are inherited together more often than
expected because they are on the same
chromosome

19

What does transcription produce (be specific)?

is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA

20

How are RNA and DNA similar? How are they different?

DNA
-Remains in neuculus

RNA
-moves out of nucleus

21

Why are CG bonds stronger than AT bonds?

Have more interactions and are hard to break

22

What transcription enzyme creates the mRNA strand?

RNA polymerase

23

What region of DNA does TBP (tata binding protein) bind to? And what is its function?

TATA box, DNA sequence that indicates where a genetic sequence can be read and decoded

24

What process produces an amino acid chain from mRNA?

protein synthesis

25

What is meant by the wobble position for translation?

Pairing of the tRNA anticodon with the mRNA codon proceeds from the 3' end of the codon. Once the first two positions are paired, exact base pairing of the third position is less critical.

26

What is genetic process has decoupled a deleterious allele with a beneficial allele in the below diagram?

crossing over
one on top is decoupled because it's not longer detached

27

How are RNA and DNA the same?

-contains a chemical message or code

28

What were ancient stromatolites comparable to today?

refs

29

What protist makes stromatolites?

cyano bacteria

30

What structures do plants grow from?

apical meristems

31

Apical Meristems

at the tip of a plant shoot or root that produces auxin and causes the shoot or root to increase in length

32

How can you identify a cyst vs a troph for Entamoeba histolytica?

cyst has a different number of nuclei in the cell