Study Guide Exam #2 (Fluid and Electrolytes) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Study Guide Exam #2 (Fluid and Electrolytes) Deck (68):
1

discuss interstitial fluid. where can it be and what does it look like on an assessment?

Interstitial fluid is found between cells. Usually found in synovial fluid in joints, cerebral spinal fluid, and ocular fluid in the eyes. Looks like edema.

2

discuss what the lab findings would look like in a fluid volume deficit patient

Hematocrit and Hemoglobin, potassium, urine-specific gravity, sodium - INCREASED

3

what is the major electrolyte in extracellular fluid ECF

Sodium

4

what is the major electrolyte in the intercellular fluid? ICF

Potassium

5

what electrolytes operate outside of the cells

sodium, calcium, ADH, chloride, bicarbonate

6

what electrolytes work inside the cells

potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, proteins

7

what is active transport

when moving fluids and electrolytes go from low to high concentration. needs energy with ATP Ex sodium-potassium pump

8

what is passive transport

movement of substances in and out of cells with high to low energy. no energy required. ex diffusion and osmosis

9

what are the normal adult blood glucose levels

70-110

10

discuss what and how diffusion, filtration, and osmosis work in the human body and is it active or passive transportation?

Diffusion - the process of “being widely spread,” is the random movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Passive.

Filtration - the transport of water and dissolved materials through a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure. Passive.

Osmosis - the diffusion of a pure solvent, such as water, across a semipermeable membrane in response to a concentration gradient, in situations where the molecules of a lower concentration to higher concentration are non-diffusible. Passive.

11

the sodium-potassium pumps movement of the body fluids is what type of transport

Active transport

12

what is the normal adult range for VS

BP: <90/<60; 120/80; <139/<89
T: 98.6F
P: 60-100
R: 12-20
Pain: 1-10

13

name types of food that have potassium

bananas, avocados, veggies, chicken, yogourt, raisins.

14

HandH normal ranges for adults?

Hemoglobin:
12-16 female
14-18 male

Hematocrit:
37-47 female
42-52 male

15

what labs would you find elevated in a patient with hyperparathyroidism

calcium

16

discuss the normal range of the body's electrolytes

Na+: 136-145
K+: 3.5-5.0
Ca+: 9.0-10.5
P-: 1.3-2.1
Cl-: 98-106
Mag+: 3.5-4.5

17

discuss the normal ranges for ABG's

PaO2: 75 - 100
PaCo2: 35-45
HCo3: 22-26
Blood pH: 7.35 - 7.45 (concentration of hydrogen ions)
SaO2: 95-100%

18

what are the normal BUN and Creatinine adult ranges

Creatinine: 0.8-1.3
Blood urea nitrogen: 8-21

19

what is the fastest route too hydrate someone who is dehydrated

IV fluid

20

name types of food that have magnesium

green leafy veggies, legumes, peanut butter, chocolate, whole grains,

21

ESRD patient diet should limit what food groups and why

sodium, potassium, phosphate, protein, magnesium, protein, dairy

22

what is the easiest way to restore proper hydration

IV fluid, drink water

23

chemical and protein buffers are responsible for doing what in the body

Neutralize acid. 1st chemical. 2nd lung. 3rd kidneys.

24

what electrolyte has the greatest influence on the bodies water balance

Sodium

25

a positive chvostek's or trousseau's sign indicates what electrolyte imbalance, and is it hypo or hyper

Hypocalcemia.

26

what assessment finding/s indicated your pt had chvostek's or trousseaus's

Numbness and tingling around the mouth.
Facial twitching
Laryngeal spasm
Abdominal muscle cramps

27

diminished deep tendon reflexes are indicative of hyper or hypokalemia

hypokalemia

28

neuromuscular and cardiac function is the responsibility of what electrolyte

potassium

29

what is the drug tx of choice for the patient who has hyperkalemia

loop diuretic such as Lasix (furosemide) if renal fx is adequate.

Kayexalate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate)

30

neuromuscular and cardiac function is the responsibility of what electrolyte

hypokalemia

31

would your patient who has either hypo or hyper K+ have ECG/EKG changes

Both

32

what is the most accurate way to dertermine your patients water balance/imbalance

Daily weight at the same time.

33

what are the definitions and the normal ranges for HCO3, PaCO2, pH, Pao2

PaO2: 75 - 100
PaCo2: 35-45
HCo3: 22-26
Blood pH: 7.35 - 7.45

34

what largest fluid compartment found in the body is

intracellular

35

what is the s/s of hypocalcemia

tingling. numbness and tingling around the mouth, facial twitching (chvostek's sign), carpopedal spasm (trousseau's sign), laryngeal spasm, laryngeal stridor, abdominal and muscle cramps, bleeding, and fractures

36

describe what metabolic acidosis patients ABG's look like. Describe the possible cause/s

pH is less than 7.35.
PaCO2 is normal.
HCO3 is less than 22.

Diabetic ketoacidosis DKA
Starvation
Heavy Exercise
Fever
Seizure
Kidney failure
Diarrhea

37

describe what the metabolic alkalosis patients ABG's would look like. Describe the possible cause/s

pH greater than 7.45.
PaCO2 is normal.
HCO3 is greater than 26.

antacids
blood transfusion
TPN
Loss of gastric secretions
potassium depletion

38

describe what a respiratory acidosis patients ABG's would look like. describe possible cause/s

Ph is less than 7.35.
PaCO2 is greater than 45.
HCO3 is normal.

Hypoventilation

Respiratory depression from poisons, trauma, anesthetics. Inadequate chest expansion. Airway obstruction, asthma, and laryngospasm.

39

describe what a respiratory alkalosis patients ABG's would look like. describe the possible cause/s

pH is greater than 7.45.
PaCO2 is less than 35.
HCO3 is normal.

Hyperventilation

Anxiety, fear, high altitudes, shock, early stage asthma.

40

what organ is responsible for excreting electrolytes out of the body

the kidneys

41

describe what the BUN would look like in the patient with "fluid volume deficit"

Increased

42

describe what the BUN would look like the patient with "fluid volume excess"

Decreased

43

how would the patient with FVE lungs sounds

Increased rate, shallow respirations, dyspnea, orthopnea, CRACKLES, diminished breath sounds.

44

what labs would you expect to see abnormal in the fluid volume excess patient

Decreased:
Hct
Osmolarity
Urine specific gravity
Sodium
Arterial blood gases
BUN
Creatinine
Potassium

45

hyperventilation from anxiety can cause what acid based imbalance

Respiratory alkalosis

46

what is a simple intervention your patient might be able to do to correct the above imbalance

Provide O2 therapy, maintain patent airway, and enhance gas exchange. GIVE PAPER BAG

47

what types of foods are high in sodium

cheese, milk, condiments, canned soup, canned anything

48

what body system is most affected by hyponatremia

the central nervous system

49

what electrolyte would be elevated in your patient has hyperphosphatemia

Phosphorus

50

what vitamin would you expect to give to the hypophosphatemia patient and why

Vitamin D. Because vitamin D enhances calcium and phosphate absorption, frequent monitoring of both is required.

51

what IV solution would be the most appropriate for the patient with hypernatremia

Hypotonic IV (0.3% sodium chloride)

52

dry mucus membranes and cracked lips indicates what

Fluid loss

53

respiratory depression may lead to what acid base imbalance

pH less than 7.35 and PaCO2 greater than 45

54

what would the patients ABG's look like who has overdosed on ASA's

respiratory alkalosis. CO2 low. pH is high

55

what symptoms would you need to report immediately to PCP in your patient who has hyponatremia and why?

muscle weakness. It puts you at risk for respiratory compromise.

56

metabolic acidosis causes the heart to increase or decrease why

Decreases because CO2 is less in the body.

57

what other symptoms would you expect your patient to have with the condition above

Diabetic ketoacidosis. Provide insulin.
GI losses. Administer antidiarrheals and provide rehydration.
If bicarb is low, administer bicarbonate.

58

Discuss the causes of hypovolemia

abnormal GI loses
diaphoresis
third spacing
hemorrhage
altered intake

59

what are the normal adult blood glucose levels

70-120

60

name types of foods that have magnesium

green leafy veggies, whole grain breads, nuts, beans

61

discuss the normal blood pH range

7.35-7.45

62

what types of food that have calcium

dairy, kale, sardines, yogurt

63

discuss the importance of sodium in the body

Your body uses 99 percent of its calcium to keep your bones and teeth strong, thereby supporting skeletal structure and function

64

what is the normal urine specific gravity range

1.005- 1.030

65

what would be the s/s of dehydration

dry mouth, lethargic, cracked lips, dry skin, sunken eyes

66

what is ATP

ENERGY. Transports it. Adenosine triphosphate

67

what is a simple intervention your patient might be able to do to correct hyperventilation from anxiety

provide O2 therapy, maintain patent airways, enhance gas exchange

68

what electrolyte would be elevated if your patient has hyperparathyroidism?

hypercalcemia