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Flashcards in Study Guide Lecture (Front Side) Deck (106):
1

What are the 5 innate immunity physical protective factors?

1. Skin (epidermis and dermis)
2. Mucous membranes (mucus and ciliary escalator)
3. Lacrimal apparatus (washes eye)
4. Saliva
5. Urine

2

What are the 6 innate immunity chemical protective factors?

1. Sebum
2. low pH of skin
3. lysozyme (in sweat, tears, saliva, and urine)
4. low pH of gastric juice
5. low pH of vaginal secretions

3

What is our second line of defense upon infections?

immune cells

4

What is our first line of defense upon infection?

skin and mucous membranes

5

Immune cells involved in innate immunity:
What do red blood cells do?

transport O2 and CO2

6

What are the three types of white blood cells?

neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils

7

Immune cells involved in innate immunity:
What do neutrophils do?

phagocytosis

8

Immune cells involved in innate immunity:
What do basophils do?

release histamine

9

Immune cells involved in innate immunity:
What do eosinophils do?

kill parasites

10

Immune cells involved in innate immunity:
What do monocytes/macrophages do?

phagocytosis

11

Immune cells involved in innate immunity:
What do dendritic cells do?

phagocytosis

12

Immune cells involved in innate immunity:
What do natural killer cells do?

destroy target cells

13

Immune cells involved in innate immunity:
What do platelets do?

blood clotting

14

What are the two cells involved with adaptive immunity?

t cells and b cells

15

What role do T cells have in adaptive immunity?

cell mediated immunity

16

What role do B cells have in adaptive immunity?

produce antibodies

17

_______ are everywhere, always around, they are the first responders at site of infection

neutrophils

18

What do the greek words "phago" and "cyte" translate to?

phago=eat
cyte=cell

19

Which two cells phagocyte?

neutrophiles and (fixed and wandering) macrophages

20

Define phagocytosis

ingestion of microbes or particles by a cell, preformed by phagocytes

21

What are the 7 stages of phagocytosis?

1. chemotaxis and adherence of microbe to phagocyte
2. ingestion of microbe by phagocyte
3. Formation of a phagosome
4. Fusion of the phagosome with a lysosome to form a phagolysosome
5. digestion of ingested microbe by enzyme
6. formation of residual body containing indigestible material
7. discharge of waste material

22

What are 6 symptoms of inflammation?

acute-phase proteins are activated, vasodilation, redness, swelling (edema), pain, and heat

23

What are the 6 stages of inflammation?

1. chemicals (histamine, kinins,etc) are released by damaged cells
2. blood clot forms
3. abscess starts to form
4. margination: phagocytes stick to endothelium
5. diapedesis: phagocytes squeeze between endothelial cells
6. phagocytosis of invading bacteria

24

Define parenchyma

regenerated epidermis (tissue repair)

25

Define stroma

regenerated dermis (tissue repair)

26

Define innate immunity

defenses against any pathogen

27

Define adaptive immunity

induced resistance to a specific pathogen

28

What are the 4 types of adaptive immunity?

1. naturally acquired active immunity
2. naturally acquired passive immunity
3. artificially acquired active immunity
4. artificially acquired passive immunity

29

immunoglobins are ____________ ___________

globular proteins

30

The number of antigen-binding sites determines ___________

valence

31

What are the 3 functions of igG antibodies?

enhance phagocytosis, neutralize toxins and viruses, and protect fetus and newborn

32

What are the function of igM antibodies?

agglutinates microbes; first antibody produced in response to infection

33

What is the function of igA antibodies?

mucosal protection

34

What is the function of igD antibodies?

on B cells, initiate immune response

35

What is the function of igE antibodies?

allergic reactions; lysis of parasitic worms

36

Mammalian B cells express _______

MHC (major histocompatibility complex)

37

Which antigen stimulates B cells to make antibodies?

t-independent antigens

38

What are epitopes?

specific recognition sites on antigens

39

B cells differentiate into ___________ and ___________

plasma cells (antibody producing) and memorty cells

40

What are 5 ways antibodies help with humoral immune response?

agglutination, opsonization, neutralization, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxiticity, and activation of complement

41

What does agglutination do?

reduces number of infectious units to be dealt with

42

What does opsonization do?

coats an antigen with antibody to enhance phagocytosis

43

What does neutralization do?

blocks adhesion of bacteria and viruses to mucosa and blocks attachment of toxin

44

What does antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity do?

antibodies attached to target cell cause destruction by macrophages, eosinophils, and NK cells

45

What does activation of complement do?

causes inflammation and cell lysis

46

What are the 4 types of T cells?

Natural Killer, T-regulatory, Cytotoxic, and Helper

47

Where do T cells mature?

in the thymus

48

T cells respond to ___________ by T cell receptors (TCRs)

antigens

49

T cells require ___________

antigen presenting cells

50

Pathogens entering the gastrointestinal or respiratory tracts pass through ___________ and ___________

M (microfold) cells and Peyer's patches (which contain antigen-presenting cells)

51

___________ recognizes antigens and MHC II on antigen presenting cells

T- cell receptors (T helper cells)

52

What are toll-like receptors?

they are a costimulatory signal on antigen presenting cells and T helper cells (lead to an immune response to pathogens)

53

T helper cells produce cytokines and differentiate into ___________, ___________, and ___________

Th1, Th2, and memory cells

54

How are T helper cells activated?

An antigen presenting cells ingests a microorganism with antigens, it breaks down the antigen into peptides which bond with MHC and displayed on the surface of the cell, then aa receptor on the T helper cell binds to the MHC which activates the T helper cell to produce cytokines, the cytokines cause the t helper cell to proliferate and develop its effector functions

55

T helper cells are aka:
T cytotoxic cells are aka:

-CD4+ or Th
-CD8+ or Tc

56

T cytotoxic cells are activated into ___________ and induce ___________ in target cell

cytotoxic T lymphocytes, apoptosis

57

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes release ___________ and ___________ that leads to apoptosis

perforin and granzymes

58

A normal cell will not trigger cytotoxic T cells, only ___________ or ___________ cells that produce ___________

virus infected cells or cancer cells, abnormal endogenous antigens

59

Apoptosis is really important to destroy an infected cell, but it has to be controlled death or...

it will cause damage and death to surrounding tissue

60

What do T regulatory cells do?

suppress T cells against self, protects your cells from your own immunity cells

61

What 3 cells are APCs (antigen presenting cells)

B cells, dendritic cells, and activated macrophages

62

What to Natural Killer (NK) cells do?

destroy cells that do not express MHC I (self), kill virus-infected and tumor cells, also attack parasites

63

What are cytokines? Over production of cytokines leads to ___________

they are chemical messengers, examples IL-1, IL-8, and interferons
-overproduction leads to cytokine storm

64

What does the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) do?

stimulates t helper cells in presence of antigens; attracts phagocytes

65

What does the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) do?

Proliferation of antigen stimulated T helper cells, proliferation and differentiation of B cells, and activates T cytotoxic and NK cells (part of inflammation

66

Normal microbiota of the skin:

-Gram-positive, salt-tolerant bacteria
-staphylococci, micrococci, diptheroids
-non pathogenic gram-positive bacteria
-aerobes on surface
-anaerobes in hair follicles

67

Staphylococcus aureus is ___________

antibiotic resistant

68

Streptococcus pyogenes is a skin infection that attacks ___________, lyse ___________ and ___________, and is sensitive to ___________

connective tissue, lyse RBC and neutrophils, penicillin

69

___________ is a skin infection caused by S pyogenes, tissue damage can lead to sepsis

erysipelas

70

Nervous system diseases usually produce ___________

a toxin

71

How is Polio transmitted?

by ingestion

72

What are 3 ways the urinary protects itself from infection?

valves prevent backflow to kidneys, acidity of urine, mechanical flushine

73

What are the normal microbiota of the urinary system?

urinary bladder and upper urinary tract are sterile

74

What is Candida albicans?

a yeast like fungus in urinary sstem, part of normal microbiota

75

What are Lactobacilli?

normal microbiota, predominant in the vagina, produce H2O2, grow on glycogen secretions, low pH

76

What does TORCH stand for?

Toxoplasmosis
Other (syphilis, hep B, etc)
Rubella
Cytomegalovirus
Herpes simple virus

77

What is the purpose of the TORCH test?

tests for antibodies to four organisms that cause congenital infections transmitted from mother to fetus.

78

What bacteria causes rheumatic fever?

autoimmune complication of Streptococcus pyogenes
(inflammation of heart valves)

79

What is the vector of plague, lyme disease, and typhus?

rat flea, ticks, arthropod

80

What do normal microbiota in the respiratory system do?

suppress pathogens by competitive inhibition in upper respiratory system ( lower respiratory system is sterile)

81

Strep throat is caused by what microbe?

Streptococcus pyogenes

82

Commensal microorganism is when...

one organism benefits, and the other organism is unaffected

83

Normal microbiota protect the host by... (3 ways)

-occupying niches that pathogens might occupy
-producing acids
-producing bacteriocins (to prevent other organisms from colonizing)

84

What is a communicable disease?

a disease that is spread from one host to another

85

Incidence:

fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time

86

Prevalence:

fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time

87

Sporadic disease:

disease that occurs occasionally in a population (like hepatitis from the cosco berries)

88

A disease constantly present in a population is called a(n) __________ disease

endemic (like TB or malaria)

89

A disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time is called a(n) __________ disease

epidemic (like SARS)

90

A worldwide epidemic is called a(n) __________ disease

pandemic

91

Immunity in most of a population is referred to as __________

herd immunity

92

Swine flu was a(n) __________ that turned into a(n) __________

epidemic, pandemic

93

A toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes, especially bacteria or their toxins, from a focus of infection is called __________

sepsis

94

What is bacteremia?

bacteria in the blood

95

What is septicemia?

growth of bacteria in the blood

96

What is the difference between mechanical transmission and biological transmission?

mechanical: arthropod carries pathogen on feet
biological: pathogen reproduces in vector

97

What did John Snow do in terms of epidemiology?

He mapped to occurrence of cholera in London

98

Deine virulence:

the extent of pathogenicity

99

What are 5 virulence factors?

spreading factors, drug resistance, adhesion factors, escape phagocytosis, and toxin production

100

What is the difference between ID50 and LD50?

ID50: infectious dose for 50% of the test population
LD50: lethal dose (of a toxin) for 50% of the test population

101

Bacillus anthracis is spread by __________. The ID50 for Bacillus anthracis varies depending on __________

endospores, portal of entry (skin is the least, then inhalation, ingestion requires the most endospores for ID 50)

102

ID50 is much __________ (higher/lower) than LD50

lower

103

__________ bind to receptors on host cells and form biofilms

adhesions/ligands

104

What is the difference between an endotoxin and an exotoxin?

endotoxin: on the surface of bacteria
exotoxin: excreted out of bacteria

105

Endotoxins cause __________ of cells and cause a __________ in humans

lysis, fever

106

How do LD50s differ in endotoxins and exotoxins

LD50 is much higher in endotoxins, compared to exotoxins