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Flashcards in Study Guide: Treatment of Psychological Disorders Deck (37):
1

Basic categories of ANTIDEPRESSANTS? (4)

- TRICYCLICS (slow the reuptake of neurotransmitter norepinephrin)
- MAO inhibitors (like tricyclics)
- SSRIs (e.g. prozac, zoloft) (slow serotonin reuptake)
- SNRIs (slows reuptake of both norepinephrin and serotonin)

2

Other words for ANTIAXIETY DRUGS? (2)
BASIC CATEGORY of ANTIANXIETY DRUG?

- TRANQUILIZERS
- ANXIOLYTICS
- BENZADIAZEPINES (e.g. valium, xanax) - increases gaba; GABA binds to RECEPTORS in BRAIN (thus inhibits or slows the response to anxiety)

3

Basic categories of ANTIPSYCHOTICS? (3)

--> these block receptors for DOPAMINE
- CHLORPROMAZINE (thorazine)
- HALOPERIDAL (haldol)
- CLOZAPINE (clozaril)

4

What is a NEUROLEPTIC?

- other name for ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUG

5

Basic categories of MOOD STABILIZERS (--> bipolar disorder) (2)

- LITHIUM
- DIVALPROEX (anti-convulsant)

6

BASIC CATEGORIES in PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY? (4)

- ANTIANXIETY DRUGS
- ANTIPSYCHOTICS
- ANTIDEPRESSANTS
- MOOD STABILIZERS

7

NOREPINEPHRINE function?

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8

SEROTONIN function?

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9

DOPAMINE function?

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10

Other BIOMEDICAL THERAPIES (in addition to drugs) (3)

- ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) -- to ppl who are extremely depressed...(an lead to permanent memory loss)
- TMS (use of systematic magnetic signals to change the brain)
- DBS (brain stimulation: actually involves the implantation of a chip into the brain)

11

CONS of DRUG THERAPY? (4)

- GENDER, AGE, and CULTURE affect the effectiveness of somatic treatments
- treats the SYMPTOMS, not the causes (depression is caused by bad home environments)
- gains tend to be lost after patient stops receiving drugs (and patients tend to stop taking medication when they think they have been cured and want to be rid of the side effects)
- PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY constantly pushing for drugs to be a fix.

12

What happens if DRUGS don't work?

- people get put into institutions.
- people get put in community care.

13

3. How do MODERN psychoanalytic therapies differ from Freudian therapies?

- neo-freudians tend to move away from the role of the ID and the "heavy-duty wiring" to PSYCHOSEXUAL CONFLICT

14

1. Distinguish between: psychiatrist, psychologist, clinical social worker, counselor (4)

- PSYCHIATRIST: has an M.D. (can prescribe drugs); 4 year medical degree + 4 year apprenticeship in hospital; --> biomedical approach
- PSYCHOLOGIST: must earn a doctoral degree (e.g. PhD) usually: insight and behavioral techniques
- CLINICAL SOCIAL WORKER: generally Master's degree; works w/ patients and families to ease integration back into community
- COUNSELOR: works in schools, colleges and assorted human agencies; typ Masters degree; specializes in particular types of problems (e.g. rehabilitation, drugs...)

14

What are the advantages of blending approaches to treatment?

- usually blending therapy involves medication and some form of therapy. advantage --> medicine defuses SYMPTOMS and therapy tries to get at the CAUSE

14

What are the advantages of GROUP THERAPY?

- support of other members in group/sense of being a community --> ppl can see other people with the same disorders and relate to them. (ppl w/ psychological disorders tend to be isolated)
- limited availability of good-quality psychologists
- tend to stick to therapy longer
- clients feel empowered because they are actively participating
- cheaper

14

What is the role of DREAM ANALYSIS in psychoanalysis?

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15

3. How do MODERN psychoanalytic therapies differ from Freudian therapies?

- adaptations: adler and jung (less emphasis on sexual drives, on the id and superego, more on the ego...)
- INTERPRETATION, RESISTANCE and TRANSFERENCE continue to play key roles in therapeutic effect

19

What is the role of DREAM ANALYSIS in psychoanalysis?

- provides information on the unconscious; --> analyzes the symbolism in the dreams

20

What are the advantages of DEINSTITUTIONALIZATION?

- easier to be treated in community setting;
- focuses on PREVENTION;
- provides a context that is healthy rather than unhealthy (not just sitting in a chair, seeing other sick ppl)
- not only does it increase their DIGNITY, it is also WAY CHEAPER.

21

What is the role of INTERPRETATION in psychoanalysis?

- therapist interprets thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviors; offer interpretations that might be out of the client's own reach.

22

What is the role of RESISTANCE in psychoanalysis?

- assumed to be an inevitable part of the psychoanalytic process (why? bcos they don't want to face painful, disturbing conflicts that were buried in their unconscious.

23

What is the role of TRANSFERENCE in psychoanalysis?

- psychoanalysts encourage this so that clients can reenact relations with crucial ppl (in context of therapy) --> helps bring repressed feelings and conflicts to the surface which allows the client to work thru them.

24

4. Describe both the THERAPEUTIC PROCESS in CLIENT-CENTERED THERAPY.

- therapists emotionally support clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy --> INSIGHT therapy;
- try to help restructure SELF-CONCEPT: foster self-acceptance and personal growth
- provides FEEDBACK to help clients sort out their their feelings – clarification

25

4. Describe the THERAPEUTIC PERSPECTIVE in CLIENT-CENTERED THERAPY.

- persective: it is the client who knows what hurts, what direction to go, what problems are crucia...–carl rogers; most major problem: INCONGRUENCE

26

5. Describe the ROLE of the THERAPIST in GROUP THERAPY.

- participants essentially function as therapists to one another: describe problems, share experiences, discuss coping strategies
- provide ACCEPTANCE and EMOTIONAL SUPPORT for each other

27

5. Describe the ROLE of the PARTICIPANT in GROUP THERAPY.

- often play a subtle role: tries to promote group cohesiveness; is on a more equal footing.
- select the participants, set goals for the group, protect clients from harm

28

How does SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION and EXPOSURE THERAPY apply principles of behavioral learning therapy?

- uses counterconditioning: assumes that phobia was a result of classical conditioning (pairing a harmless stimulus–e.g. bridge–with a fear arousing event)
- gradually progresses from least feared to most-feared stimuli

29

How does AVERSION THERAPY apply principles of behavioral learning theory?

- undesirable behavior is paired with a negative stimulus
- classical conditioning: body naturally pairs the behavior or object (e.g. alcohol) with negative connotations (e.g. nausea)

30

How does MODELING and SOCIAL SKILLS TRAINING apply principles of behavioral learning theory?

- depends on principles of OPERANT CONDITIONING and OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING (modeling: watch socially skilled friends and colleagues in order to acquire appropriate responses).

31

TARDIVE DYSKINESIA?

- neurological disorder marked by involuntary writhing and tic-like movements of the mouth, tongue, face, hands or feet; once it emerges, there is no cure.

32

What are the advantages of GROUP THERAPY? (5)

- save TIME and MONEY
- can be JUST AS EFFECTIVE as individual treatment
- participants often come to realize that their misery ISN'T UNIQUE (I'm not the only one!)
- provides an opportunity for the participants to work on their SOCIAL SKILLS in a safe environment
- certain types of problems and clients respond particularly well to SOCIAL SUPPORT

33

What are the advantages of BLENDING APPROACHES TO TREATMENT?

- SCIENTIFIC STUDIES (on depression) have shown that combining approaches to treatment has merit (esp. somatic and psychotherapy); --> addresses the biological and psychosocial substrates of the disorder

34

What are the advantages of DEINSTITUTIONALIZATION?

- avoids DISRUPTIVE and unnecessary hospitalization (all the cons of hospitalization: away from community, understaffed, underfunded...)
- can be just as EFFECTIVE and LESS COSTLY than hospitalization
- greater FREEDOM

35

Kubler-Ross study of grief stages? (4)

- DENIAL
- ANGER (who did this??)
- NEGOTIATION (surely there is sth we can do to undo this)
- ACCEPTANCE/GRIEF

36

Distinguish b/w ELLIS and BECK in the use of cognitive-behavioral treatment.

- ELLIS:
- BECK:

37

What treatments are most effective for:
- CONDUCT DISORDER
- AUTISTIC SPECTRUM
- ADHD

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