Flashcards in Studying Society Deck (69):
-A set of written rules regulating what may or may not be done by members of a society.
-The whole way of life of a group of people passed from one generation to the next.
-An informal rule that guides our behaviour in a particular situation.
-The beliefs held by a person or a social group that help to build a set of norms.
-What you are born with i.e. genetics.
-What you develop during your life or learn from others.
-You lean the norms and values about society and what is right or wrong.
Define Primary Socialisation.
-The informal process through which you learn the norms, values, attitudes and actions of your culture.
Define Secondary Socialisation.
-Learning through agencies like the mass media, religion, eduction, law and legal system, work or peer groups.
What are Feral Children?
-Children wo are not socialised in their early stages of life, and cannot properly function in society.
Define Social Class.
-The status a person has a based on things like their income and occupation.
-The social differences between the sexes, i.e. masculinity or femininity.
-The group that people belong to based on culture, race or history.
-The honour or standing connected to somebody's position in society.
Define Social Stratification.
-When society is separated into different layers and groups.
Define a Strata.
-The layers or groups that a person belongs to, seen as being either above or below another.
In 2013, how many people considered them selves working class?
-They see the middle class as 'ideal' and don't think they fit into that.
Describe Equality in Education.
-Students from higher income families are more likely to succeed.
-60% of children with parents in professional jobs received 5 or more A*-C grades at GCSE.
Describe Equality at Work.
-Work for disadvantaged groups has grown.
-Disadvantaged people (older, disable, low qualified) are the biggest number of unemployed.
-45% of those with low qualifications are unemployed.
Describe Equality with Income.
-Middle class earn more money in better jobs.
-Divide between the rich and poor has grown over the last 20 years.
Describe Equality with Living Standards.
-People live with low income don't spend their money on luxuries.
-They are more likely to spend it on necessities.
-59% of the lower class don't own a car.
Describe Equality With Health.
-Manual workers die sooner than professional workers.
-Strong relationships between jobs and life expectancy.
-Professional jobs live 7.4 years longer.
Describe Equality with Participation.
-People in higher income households are more likely to volunteer.
-people that unemployed are more likely to vote.
What is meant by Biological Gender?
-Whether you are born male or female.
What is meant by Sociological gender?
-How parents and media treat the different sexes.
Describe Women in 20th Century.
-Women need to know their limits.
-They are supposed to support their husbands.
-They do all the cooking.
-They need look nice and be sweet.
-Don't appear well-educated.
What percentage of Britain is white?
Define Ethnic Group.
-A social group who share identity based on their culture, religion or language.
Define Ethnic Minority.
-People who are from a different ethnic group than the majority of the population.
Define Racial Group.
-The division of people based on natural/physical characteristics, e.g. skin colour.
-When people are treated badly on the basis of their ethnicity.
Describe the Ethnic Minority and Work.
-Might not get work.
-Might not be able to speak English.
-Might be denied jobs.
Describe the Ethnic Minority and Education.
-Some might receive racist comments.
-May be denied educations.
Describe the Ethnic Minority and Health.
-May be not be able to speak English.
What is the 1976 Race relations Act?
-Out lawed direct discrimination, indirect discrimination and victimisation.
What are The establishment of the Equality and Human rights commission?
-Helps out to tackle Racism and Discrimination.
What is meant by biological age?
-How long you've been alive.
-How your body changes e.g. Getting taller and turning grey.
What is meant by sociological age?
-Depending on the society, we are expected to behave differently with age.
What is Social Construct?
-how long a part of society is developed, and is created by stereotypical society e.g. gender and age are stereotyped by things you should do as a child, women or man.
What is the Consensus Perspective?
-See the positives of society like education, government, families, media etc. they see how they work together and benefit society.
What is the Conflict Perspective?
-See how society can be negative, often for certain groups of people - based on age, gender, ethnicity and class.
What is the Structuralist Perspective?
-Show that society makes us who we are, by looking at the big picture.
What is the Interactionalist Perspective?
-Focus on smaller groups and individuals, anyhow they behave in society.
What is the Functionalist Perspective?
-Focus on how different groups works together.
What is the Feminist Perspective?
-Somebody who believes that men and women should be equal in society.
What is the Marxist Perspective?
-Someone who believes in the ideas of Karl Marx.
-See the main divisions in society as being based on social class operating in a capitalist system.
What is Quantitative Data?
-Data with numbers.
What is Qualitative Data?
-Data with words, either written or spoken.
What is Primary Data?
-Information you find out yourself.
What is Secondary Data?
-Information someone else finds out and you use, i.e. newspaper articles.
What are Practical Issues?
-Issues that may effect how you actually carry out a study.
-Participants: Who they are and how you will get them to take part.
-Time: The timescale / Deadlines you have.
-Money: How much you have to spend, may affect he number of respondents you can use or the methods you use.
What are Ethical Issues?
-Issues that address the safety and protection of your participants or yourself.
-Gaining Consent: Make sure the respondents agree to participate.
-Confidentiality: keep personal info between you and the respondents.
-Protection from Harm: Make sure that you and the respondents are safe at all times.
What are Theoretical Issues?
-Consider validity, reliability and representability of the study.
-Validity: how accurate are the findings of the study, in relation to what is going on in society?
-Reliability: Can the findings be checked with other research with the same results?
-Representability: Does the method used allow for a big sample size that represents the wider population?
What is the Population?
-The whole group that you are studying.
What is the Sample Frame?
-A list of people from which your sample is taken.
What is the Sample?
-The group of people selected from your sample frame to complete your survey.
What is the Representative?
-The degree of which your sample reflects wider society.
What is a Social Survey?
-Used to collect any type of data from large aments of people.
What is a Longitudinal Study?
-A survey with takes place over an extended amount of time.
What is a Postal Questionnaire?
-Posting a survey.
What are Hand Delivered Questionnaires?
-Delivering survey by hand.
What is Structure?
-Set of questions.
What is Semi-structured?
-Some set, some discussed.
What is an Unstructured Talk?
-Talk about a certain topic.
What is a Group Interview?
What is Participation Observation?
-When the researcher is involved.
What is Non-Participation Observation?
-When the researchers isn't involved.
What is Overt Observation?
-When the participants know they are being observed.