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Sociology > Studying Society > Flashcards

Flashcards in Studying Society Deck (69):
1

Define Laws.

-A set of written rules regulating what may or may not be done by members of a society.

2

Define Culture.

-The whole way of life of a group of people passed from one generation to the next.

3

Define Norms.

-An informal rule that guides our behaviour in a particular situation.

4

Define Values.

-The beliefs held by a person or a social group that help to build a set of norms.

5

Define Nature.

-What you are born with i.e. genetics.

6

Define Nurture.

-What you develop during your life or learn from others.

7

Define Socialisation.

-You lean the norms and values about society and what is right or wrong.

8

Define Primary Socialisation.

-The informal process through which you learn the norms, values, attitudes and actions of your culture.

9

Define Secondary Socialisation.

-Learning through agencies like the mass media, religion, eduction, law and legal system, work or peer groups.

10

What are Feral Children?

-Children wo are not socialised in their early stages of life, and cannot properly function in society.

11

Define Social Class.

-The status a person has a based on things like their income and occupation.

12

Define Gender.

-The social differences between the sexes, i.e. masculinity or femininity.

13

Define Ethnicity.

-The group that people belong to based on culture, race or history.

14

Define Status.

-The honour or standing connected to somebody's position in society.

15

Define Social Stratification.

-When society is separated into different layers and groups.

16

Define a Strata.

-The layers or groups that a person belongs to, seen as being either above or below another.

17

In 2013, how many people considered them selves working class?

-60%.
-They see the middle class as 'ideal' and don't think they fit into that.

18

Describe Equality in Education.

-Students from higher income families are more likely to succeed.
-60% of children with parents in professional jobs received 5 or more A*-C grades at GCSE.

19

Describe Equality at Work.

-Work for disadvantaged groups has grown.
-Disadvantaged people (older, disable, low qualified) are the biggest number of unemployed.
-45% of those with low qualifications are unemployed.

20

Describe Equality with Income.

-Middle class earn more money in better jobs.
-Divide between the rich and poor has grown over the last 20 years.

21

Describe Equality with Living Standards.

-People live with low income don't spend their money on luxuries.
-They are more likely to spend it on necessities.
-59% of the lower class don't own a car.

22

Describe Equality With Health.

-Manual workers die sooner than professional workers.
-Strong relationships between jobs and life expectancy.
-Professional jobs live 7.4 years longer.

23

Describe Equality with Participation.

-People in higher income households are more likely to volunteer.
-people that unemployed are more likely to vote.

24

What is meant by Biological Gender?

-Whether you are born male or female.

25

What is meant by Sociological gender?

-How parents and media treat the different sexes.

26

Describe Women in 20th Century.

-Women need to know their limits.
-They are supposed to support their husbands.
-They do all the cooking.
-Stay quiet.
-They need look nice and be sweet.
-Don't appear well-educated.

27

What percentage of Britain is white?

-85%.

28

Define Ethnic Group.

-A social group who share identity based on their culture, religion or language.

29

Define Ethnic Minority.

-People who are from a different ethnic group than the majority of the population.

30

Define Racial Group.

-The division of people based on natural/physical characteristics, e.g. skin colour.

31

Define Racism.

-When people are treated badly on the basis of their ethnicity.

32

Describe the Ethnic Minority and Work.

-Might not get work.
-Might not be able to speak English.
-Might be denied jobs.

33

Describe the Ethnic Minority and Education.

-Some might receive racist comments.
-May be denied educations.

34

Describe the Ethnic Minority and Health.

-May be not be able to speak English.

35

What is the 1976 Race relations Act?

-Out lawed direct discrimination, indirect discrimination and victimisation.

36

What are The establishment of the Equality and Human rights commission?

-Helps out to tackle Racism and Discrimination.

37

What is meant by biological age?

-Physical age.
-How long you've been alive.
-How your body changes e.g. Getting taller and turning grey.

38

What is meant by sociological age?

-Depending on the society, we are expected to behave differently with age.

39

What is Social Construct?

-how long a part of society is developed, and is created by stereotypical society e.g. gender and age are stereotyped by things you should do as a child, women or man.

40

What is the Consensus Perspective?

-See the positives of society like education, government, families, media etc. they see how they work together and benefit society.

41

What is the Conflict Perspective?

-See how society can be negative, often for certain groups of people - based on age, gender, ethnicity and class.

42

What is the Structuralist Perspective?

-Show that society makes us who we are, by looking at the big picture.

43

What is the Interactionalist Perspective?

-Focus on smaller groups and individuals, anyhow they behave in society.

44

What is the Functionalist Perspective?

-Focus on how different groups works together.

45

What is the Feminist Perspective?

-Somebody who believes that men and women should be equal in society.

46

What is the Marxist Perspective?

-Someone who believes in the ideas of Karl Marx.
-See the main divisions in society as being based on social class operating in a capitalist system.

47

What is Quantitative Data?

-Data with numbers.

48

What is Qualitative Data?

-Data with words, either written or spoken.

49

What is Primary Data?

-Information you find out yourself.

50

What is Secondary Data?

-Information someone else finds out and you use, i.e. newspaper articles.

51

What are Practical Issues?

-Issues that may effect how you actually carry out a study.
-Participants: Who they are and how you will get them to take part.
-Time: The timescale / Deadlines you have.
-Money: How much you have to spend, may affect he number of respondents you can use or the methods you use.

52

What are Ethical Issues?

-Issues that address the safety and protection of your participants or yourself.
-Gaining Consent: Make sure the respondents agree to participate.
-Confidentiality: keep personal info between you and the respondents.
-Protection from Harm: Make sure that you and the respondents are safe at all times.

53

What are Theoretical Issues?

-Consider validity, reliability and representability of the study.
-Validity: how accurate are the findings of the study, in relation to what is going on in society?
-Reliability: Can the findings be checked with other research with the same results?
-Representability: Does the method used allow for a big sample size that represents the wider population?

54

What is the Population?

-The whole group that you are studying.

55

What is the Sample Frame?

-A list of people from which your sample is taken.

56

What is the Sample?

-The group of people selected from your sample frame to complete your survey.

57

What is the Representative?

-The degree of which your sample reflects wider society.

58

What is a Social Survey?

-Used to collect any type of data from large aments of people.

59

What is a Longitudinal Study?

-A survey with takes place over an extended amount of time.

60

What is a Postal Questionnaire?

-Posting a survey.

61

What are Hand Delivered Questionnaires?

-Delivering survey by hand.

62

What is Structure?

-Set of questions.

63

What is Semi-structured?

-Some set, some discussed.

64

What is an Unstructured Talk?

-Talk about a certain topic.

65

What is a Group Interview?

-focus Group.

66

What is Participation Observation?

-When the researcher is involved.

67

What is Non-Participation Observation?

-When the researchers isn't involved.

68

What is Overt Observation?

-When the participants know they are being observed.

69

What is Covert Observation?

-When the participants don't know they are being observed.