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Flashcards in Stupid Plants Deck (97):
2

Describe the formation of a new plant cell

vesicles gather at the middle "cell plate" -> vesicles fuse to form the middle lamella -> daughter cells secrete wall material and separate

3

The division of plant cells create a _____ gradient within cell walls

age gradient

4

Functions of the root system

anchorstoragenutrient absorption

5

An important part of the root system is its large

surface area

6

What is the shoot system of a plant?

leaves, stems, flowers

7

Leaves are the _____ of photosynthesis

chief organs

8

Functions of the stems

hold and display the leaves to the sunconnections and transport of materials

9

radicle

embryonic root

10

The primary root is also called the

taproot

11

The taproot grows outward by extending

lateral roots

12

taproot + lateral roots =

taproot system

13

adventitious roots

shallow roots growing from ground level or below

14

Fibrous root system

numerous thin roots

15

Prop-roots are

just thicker roots that "prop" the plant up

16

Shoots are composed of repeating modules called

phytomers

17

List the parts of a phytomer

Node, internode, leaves, axullary buds

18

What is a node?

where a leaf attaches to a stem

19

what is an internode

the interval of stem between two nodes

20

what is an axillary bud?

little bulges that form the angle where the leaf meets the stem. They can grow more branches

21

What is the terminal bud?

the bud at the end of a stem/branch at the top of the plant

22

What is the primary site of photosynthesis

leaves

23

stem of the leave is called the

petiole

24

Cells have a central _____ that takes up about 90% of the cells volume

vacuole

25

What is the tonoplast?

vacuolar membrane

26

middle lamella is

the glue-like substance between the cell plates, thin layer between the walls of two daughter cells

27

The primary cell wall is the ____ layer and the secondary is the ___ layer

outerinner

28

The primary cell wall is made of __ types of polysaccharides and what are they

3: cellulose, hemicelluolse, pectins

29

Cell wall cellulose contain

microfibrils

30

The protoplast is

The plant cell plasma membrane and everything inside

31

When cell expansion stops, the _____ cell wall forms

secondary

32

What is lignin

the type of cellulose for the secondary wall. It also "lignifies" the middle lamella and primary wall as well

33

What is plasmodesmata

cytoplasm filled canals for communication between plant cells

34

basal-apical axis

arrangement of cells and tissues along main axis from root to shoot

35

radial axis

concentric arrangement of tissue systems

36

meristems are

undifferentiated cells that perform all post-embryonic development

37

When a daughter cell produces a supporting structure its called the

suspensor

38

Cotyledons are

the first leaves of a germinating plant

39

Shoot and root apical midstems are

sites where the plant will continue to grow

40

The plant body is constructed from how many tissue systems and name them

3dermalvascularground

41

Describe the dermal tissue system

makes up the epidermis of the plant1-cell layer

42

3 special cells of the epidermis

stomatal guard cellstrichomesroot hairs

43

What are stomatal guard cells

(stomata) pores for gas exchange

44

What are trichones

leave hairs that provide protection

45

what are root hairs

hairs that increase surface area for more nutrient uptake

46

What is the cuticle?

outer waxy protective layer to prevent water loss and protection

47

The ground tissue system is

all tissue lying between the dermal and vascular tissue

48

T/F: the ground tissue system makes up most of the plant body

True

49

Functions of the ground tissue system

storage, support, photosynthesis

50

3 cell types of the ground tissue system

parenchyma - storage and photosynthesiscollenchyma - flexibilitysclerenchyma - support

51

The vascular system takes care of

plumbing and transport

52

2 parts of the vascular system

xylem and phloem

53

The xylem contains conducting cells called _____ and what are they

tracheary elementstreacheids and vessel elements

54

describe tracheids

zig-zag type flow up the cells by pitscame before vessel elements

55

pits

areas where plasmodesmata lieallow the flow up the tracheids

56

Water flow in elements goes

straight up

57

both treacheary elements of the xylem are functioning when the cells are ___. Why?

Dead. So there is space in the cells for water to move through. No obstruction

58

The phloem's function is to

transport nutrients (not water)

59

sieve tube elements are

the cells of the phloem

60

The difference between the growth of animals and plants is that plants grow

indeterminantly

61

Primary growth is

the lengthening to branches/stems/roots

62

Secondary growth is

increase of thickness / roundness/ widening/ horizontally (aka girth)

63

primary growth = _____ plant bodysecondary growth = ___ plant body

primarysecondary

64

_____ are the plants equivalent to an animals stem cell

initials

65

Two type of meristems that contribute to adult growth

apical and lateral meristems

66

Apical meristems orchestrate

primary growth (elongation)

67

Lateral meristems take care of

secondary growth

68

2 later meristems are

vascular cambiumcork cambium

69

The meristem that grows leaves/branches/etcThe meristem that grows roots

Shoot apicalRoot apical

70

The meristems that specifically grows leaves

vegitative meristem

71

The meristem that grows flowers/buds

influorescence meristem

72

What is the primary meristem and name each type of primary meristem

A set of cylindrical meristems in both the shoot and root apical meristems1-protoderm2-ground meristem3-procambium

73

Name each primary primary meristem and each tissue system it correlates to

protoderm - dermalground meristem - groundprocambium- vascular

74

The end of the root apical meristem is the

root cap

75

What does the root cap do?

protects the roots as they grow downward

76

the apical and primary meristems make the ______

zone of cell division

77

What is the zone of cell division

the source of all of the root's primary tissues

78

What is above the zone of cell division

its the zone of cell elongation

79

above the zone of cell elongation there is the

zone of maturation

80

at the zone of maturation the plant cells

differentiate/ specialize

81

The cortex is devolped from the ___ tissues and functions as ____

ground tissues, storage

82

What is the endodermis

The inner most layer of cortex cells

83

T/F: the endodermis is waterproof

True

84

The vascular cylindar in plants is called the

stele

85

The stele consists of what three tisues

pericyclexylemphloem

86

What does the pericycle do

has undifferentiated cells that takes care of secondary growth and transport

87

what is the pith?

region of parenchyma cells, the center of the root/stem

88

The vascular tissues of the stem are divided into

vascular bundles

89

photosynthetic parenchyma of the leaf

mesophyll

90

What procues the waxy covering of the cells in secondary growth

cork cambium

91

The secondary derThe vmal tissue is called the

periderm

92

Elongation/expansion of cells require what pressure?

turgor

93

Major increase of cell size occurs in the

vacuole

94

apoplastic

Movment through water channels (empty space)Cells are dead a maturity

95

What component thickens stems and roots?

vascular cambium

96

symplastic

movement through the protoplast. must move like this to enter endoderm-provides selectivity for nutrients/ions

97

Stomata open in

light or low CO2

98

Stomata close in

high stress or high CO2