Subjunctive Noun Clauses (also ch.4 in general) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Subjunctive Noun Clauses (also ch.4 in general) Deck (108):
1

Si yo fuera Carlos, no perdería nunguna clase.

If I were Carlos (but I am not), I wouldn't miss any class.

2

Temo que Carlos no apruebe este curso.

I am afraid that Carlos may fail this course.

3

Si Carlos no aprobara este curse, su padre se disgustaría mucho.

Should Carlos fail this course, his father would be very upset.

4

A noun clause is a clause that has the same function as a noun; that is, it can be the subject or object of a sentence.

El que Ramón no esté aquí (=La ausencia de Ramón) me molesta. (The fact that Ramón is not here (=Ramón's absence) bothers me.
Qiero que me ayudes (=tu ayuda). I want you to help me (=your help).

5

An adjective or relative clause has the same function as an adjective; that is, it describes (modifies) a noun.

Necesitan empleados que hablen español (=hispanohablantes). They need employees who speak Spanish (=Spanish-speaking). Busco un carro que no cueste mucho (=barrato). I am looking for a car that doesn't cost much (=cheap).

6

Adverbial clauses modify the verb as adverbs do. Likewise, they answer questions like where? when? how?

Te esperaré (dónde?) en lugar que me digas. (I'll wait for you (where?) in the place you tell me to.) Se levantó (cómo?) sin que nadie lo ayudara. (He got up (how) without anyone helping him.) Le daremos tu recado (cuándo?) tan pronto como llegue. (We'll give him your message (when?) as soon as he arrives.)

7

Expressions of Volition: the subjunctive is required in Spanish in a dependent clause when the verb in the main clause indicates volition, intention, wish, or preference. Some typical verbs of this type are:

querer, desear, prohibir, sugerir, preferir, and aconsejar

8

Eduardo quiere que oigamos su historia.

Eduardo wants us to hear his story.

9

Mamá, deseas que me quede en casa hoy?

Mom, do you wish me to stay home today?

10

Los vecinos prefieren que llamemos a la policía.

The neighbors prefer that we call the police.

11

Mi madre prohíbe que los vecinos intervengan.

My mother forbids the neighbors to intervene.

12

If there is a change of subject in the dependent clause then the subjunctive is required, when there is no change of subject, however, the second verb is not a subjunctive but rather the infinitive.

Eduardo quiere contar su historia. Eduardo wants to tell his story.
Mamá, deseas quedarte en casa hoy? Mom do you wish to stay home today?
Los vecinos prefieren llamar a la policía. The neighbors prefer to call the police.

13

acceder a

to agree to

14

aceptar

to accept

15

aconsejar

to advise

16

conseguir

to succeed in, to get

17

consentir en

to consent

18

dejar

to let, allow

19

desear

to wish

20

disgustar(le) (a uno)

to dislike

21

empeñarse en

to insist on

22

estar de acuerdo con

to agree with (approve of)

23

exhortar

to exhort

24

exigir

to demand

25

gustar(le) (a uno)

to like

26

hacer

to have or make (someone do something)

27

impedir

to prevent

28

insistir en

to insist on

29

inentar

to try

30

invitar a

to invite to

31

lograr

to succeed in, bring about that

32

mandar

to order

33

obligar a

to force

34

oponerse a

to oppose

35

ordenar

to order

36

pedir

to ask (someone to do something)

37

permitir

to allow

38

preferir

to prefer

39

procurar

to try

40

prohibir

to forbid

41

proponer

to propose

42

querer

to want, wish

43

recomendar

to reccomend

44

rogar

to beg

45

sugerir

to suggest

46

suplicar

to beg, implore

47

Sometimes verbs of communication like decir, telefonear, and escribir convey the idea of volition or preference. In this case, the verb in the dependent clause is in the subjuctive. When the verb of communication merely introduces a fact, the subjunctive is not used.

Laura dice que cambies la fecha de tu viaje. Laura says for you to change the date of your trip.
Le escribiré que espere nuestra llegada. I will write him (asking him) to wait for our arrival.
Laura dice que vas a cambiar la fecha de tu viaje. Laura says that you are going to change teh date of our trip.
Le escribiré que esperamos su llegada. I will write him that we are waiting for his arrival.

48

Some verbs of influence allow an alternate infinitive construction:

Dejar, hacer, impedir, invitar a, mandar, obligar a, permitir, and prohibir. Dejar, hacer, invitar a, and obligar a, take a direct object pronoun while impedir, mandar, permitir, and prohibir take an indirect object pronoun.

49

Sus padres no la dejan que salga su novio.

Sus padres no la dejan salir con su novio. Her parents don't let her go out with her boyfriend.

50

Te prohíbo que me hables de esa manera.

Te prohíbo hablarme de esa manera. I forbid you to speak to me (in) that way.

51

Siempre la invitan a que cene con ellos.

Siempre la invitan a cenar con ellos. They always invite her to have dinner with them.

52

El maestro le mandó que escribiera en la pizarra.

El maestro le mandó escribir en la pizarra. The teacher asked him to write on the board.

53

Expressions of Emotion: The subjunctive is required in Spanish in a dependent clause when the verb in the main clause expresses feelings of emotion:

Regret, fear, pity, hope, surprise, etc.

54

Esperamose que pueda Ud. quedarse unos días más.

We hope you can stay a few more days.

55

Él siente mucho que ella esté enferma.

He is very sorry that she is sick.

56

Me sorprende que hayas perdido la billetera.

I am surprised that you have lost your wallet.

57

If there isno change of subject, the infinitive is used.

Espero poder quedarme unos días más. I hope I can stay a few more days.
Él siente mucho enfermo. He is very sorry that he is sick.
Me sorprende haber perdido la billetera. I am surprised that I have lost my wallet.

58

admirar (le) (a uno)

to be astonished

59

alegrarse de, alegrar(le) (a uno)

to be glad

60

celebrar

to be glad

61

dar(le) lástima (a uno)

to feel sorry

62

esperar

to hope

63

estar contento de

to be happy

64

extrañar(le) (a uno)

to be surprised

65

indignar(le) (a uno)

to anger

66

lamentar

to regret

67

molestar(le) (a uno)

to bother

68

preocupar(le) (a uno)

to worry

69

sentir

to regret

70

sentirse orgulloso

to feel proud

71

(avergonzado) de

(ashamed)

72

sorprender(le) (a uno), sorprenderse de

to be surprised

73

temer, tener miedo de, tenerle miedo a

to fear

74

Present indicative: Juan les pide (Juan asks them)

MC>/=DC: present subjunctive (que vengan)

75

Present perfect indicative: Juan les ha pedido (Juan has asked them)

MC>/=DC: Present subjunctive: (que vengan)

76

Future indicative: Juan les pedirá (Juan will ask them)

MC>/=DC: Present subjunctive: (que vengan)

77

Future present indicative: Juan les habrá pedido (Juan has probably asked them

MC>/=DC: Present subjunctive (que vengan)

78

Commands: Juan, pídales (Juan, ask them)

MC>/=DC: Present subjunctive (que vengan)

79

Imperfect of preterite: Juan les pidió (les pedía): Juan asked them (was asking) them

MC>/=DC: Imperfect subjunctive: que vinieran (viniesen)

80

Pluperfect indicative: Juan les había pedido: Juan had asked them

MC>/=DC: Imperfect subjunctive: que vinieran (viniesen)

81

Conditional: Juan les pediría: Juan would ask them

MC>/=DC: Imperfect subjunctive: que vinieran (viniesen)

82

Conditional perfect: Juan les habría pedido: Juan would have asked them

MC>/=DC: Imperfect subjunctive: quevinieran (viniesen)

83

Present indicative: Juan se alegre de: Juan is happy

action in DC>MC: Imperfect subjunctive: que vinieran (viniesen): (that they came) Present perfect subjunctive: que hayan venido: (that) they have come.

84

Present perfect indicative: Juan se ha alegrado de: Juan has been happy

action in DC>MC: Imperfect subjunctive: que vinieran (viniesen): (that they came) Present perfect subjunctive: que hayan venido: (that) they have come.

85

Future indicative: Juan se alegrará de: Juan will be happy

action in DC>MC: Imperfect subjunctive: que vinieran (viniesen): (that they came) Present perfect subjunctive: que hayan venido: (that) they have come.

86

Future perfect indicative: Juan se habrá alegrado de: Juan must have been happy

action in DC>MC: Imperfect subjunctive: que vinieran (viniesen): (that they came) Present perfect subjunctive: que hayan venido: (that) they have come.

87

Commands: Juan, alégrese de: Juan, be happy

action in DC>MC: Imperfect subjunctive: que vinieran (viniesen): (that they came) Present perfect subjunctive: que hayan venido: (that) they have come.

88

Imperfect or preterite: Juan se alegraba (se alegró) de: Juan was happy

Pluperfect subjunctive: que hubieran (hubiesen) venido. (that) they had come.

89

Pluperfect indicative: Juan se había alegrado do: Juan had rejoiced

Pluperfect subjunctive: que hubieran (hubiesen) venido. (that) they had come.

90

Conditional: Juan se alegraría de: Juan would be happy

Pluperfect subjunctive: que hubieran (hubiesen) venido. (that) they had come.

91

Conditional perfect: Juan se habría alegrado de: Juan would have been happy

Pluperfect subjunctive: que hubieran (hubiesen) venido. (that) they had come.

92

Expressions of Uncertainty: The subjunctive is used in Spanish when the verb in the main clause expresses doubt, disbelief, uncertainty, or denial about the reality of the dependent clause.

Dudábamos que la policía pudiera llegar a tiempo. We doubted that the police could arrive on time.

93

No cree que su enfermedad tenga cura.

He doesn't believe that his illness has a cure.

94

No estoy segura de que Raquel haya cerrado la puerta.

I am not sure that Raquel has closed the door.

95

La madre negaba que su hijo hubiera roto la ventana.

The mother denied that her son had broken the window.

96

When there is no change of subject, the infinitive is generally used.

Dudábamos poder llegar a tiempo. We doubted we could arrive on time. No cree poder acompañarme al centro. He doesn't believe he can accompany me downtown. No estoy segura de haver cerrado la puerta. I am not sure I closed the door. La madre negaba haber roto la ventana. The mother denied she broke (having broken) the window.

97

The most common verbs of uncertainty are:

no creer, dudar, no estar suguro de, negar, and resistirse a creer

98

No creer takes the indicative when the speaker is certain about the reality of the dependent verb regardless of someone else's doubt.

Ella no cree que yo me saqué la lotería. She doesn't believe that I won a prize in the lottery. (But I, the speaker, know that I did.)

99

When verbs of uncertainty are used in a question, the doubt or assurance on the part of the person who asks the question determines the use of the subjunctive or the indicative:

Creen Uds. que ella pueda hacer ese trabajo?
Do you think that she can do that work?

100

No cree Ud.... does not imply doubt on the part of the speaker and thus the indicative is used.

No crees que él es muy inteligente? Don't you think that he is very intelligent?

101

El hecho (de) que and its elliptic forms "el que"and "que"normally require the subjunctive in the clause they introduce when the fact presented is viewed by the speaker with doubt, reservation, or some kind of emotion.

El hecho de que (El que, Que) gasten tanto, me hace sorspechar. The fact that they spend so much makes me suspicious.

102

El hicho de que (El que, Que) el chico pudiera haber caído en el pozo, preocupaba a quienes lo buscaban.

The fact that the child might have fallen into the well worried those looking for him.

103

Me ha molestado el hecho de que (el que, que) no me hayas llamado antes.

The fact that you didn't call me earlier has bothered me.

104

Commands, Wishes expressed elliptically, expressious of wish or regret preceded by Ojala (que) or Quién, and doubts implied by verbs preceded by quizá(s) and tal vez may occur in independent clauses and require the subjunctive in Spanish.

Four kinds

105

Wishes expressed elliptically

Que le(s) aproveche! Von appetit! (Enjoy your dinner.)
Que se diviertan. Have a good time!
Muera el terrorisimo! Down with terrorism!
Que en paz descanse (Q.E.P.D.) May he/she rest in peace.
Que lo haga otro. Have someone else do it!

106

Expressions of wish or regret preceded by Ojalá (que) or Quién!: Ojala que + present subj. is used to express a hope or wish that something occurs in the future. Ojalá (que) + imperfect subjunctive is used to express a wish that is impossible or unlikely to occur in the future. Ojalá (que) + present perfect subj. expresses a wish about something in the immediate past. Ojalá (que) + pluperfect subj. refers to a wish that was not fulfilled in the past and denotes regret.

Ojalá que Ignacio llame hoy. I hope Ignacio calls today. (a wish that may be fulfilled.)
Ojalá que Ignacio llamara hoy. I wish Ignacio would call today. (A wish of difficult realization)
Ojalá que Ignacio haya llamado. (I hope Ignacio has called.) The speaker is out, forgot his or her cell phone at home and doesn't know whether Pepe has called or not.
Ojalá que Ignacio hubiera llamado ayer. I wish (If only) Ignacio had called yesterday. (The action didn't take place and the speaker regrets it)

107

Quien + third person singular imperfect subj. or third-person singular pluperfect subjunctive also refers to a wish of the speaker. It is never used with the present subj.

Quién pudiera vivir cien años. I wish I could live for one hundred years!
Quién hubiera estado allí en ese momento! I wish I had been there at that moment!

108

Quizá(s) and Tal vez are both equivalents of "perhaps". The subj. is used after these words when the speaker wishes to indicate doubt. If the speaker doesn't want to express doubt, the indicative is used.

Tal vez sea demasiado tarde. Perhaps it is too late.
Quizás no quieran ayudarnos. Perhaps they don't want to help us. (the speaker is in doubt)
Tal vez es demasiado tarde. Perhaps it is too late. (I think it is)
Quizás no quieren ayudarnos. Perhaps they don't want to help us. (the speaker thinks they don't)