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Flashcards in Sublethal cellular responses Deck (38):
1

what is homeostasis

steady state maintained in response to physiological demands

2

4 possible responses to stress

1. adaptation (plasias)
2. Other cell alterations
3. cell injury
4. cell death

3

3 purposes of adaptive cell repsonses

1. withstand stress
2. adapt to stress
3. restore tissues to normal function

4

4 types of adaptations

1. hyperplasia
2. hypertrophy
3. atrophy
4. metaplasia

5

def. hyperplasia

increase in # of cells, resulting in increased mass of tissue or organ

6

2 features of hyperplasia

1. occurs in cells capable of replication
2. reversible

7

mech. of hyperplasia

stim of cell cycle by growth factors, more mature cells

8

4 pathologic hyperplasia

1. endometrial
2. prostatic
3. ductal of breast
4. repsonse to viruses

9

2 phsyiological hyperplasia

1. hormonal
2. compensatory

10

def. hypertrophy

increase in cell size leading to larger organ

11

3 feat. of hypertrophy

1. oft. coexists with hyperplasia
2. cell enlargement
3. reversible

12

mech of hypertrophy

increased synthesis of structural proteins and cellular components

13

2 physiological hypertrophy

1. excercise
2. hormonal

14

2 pathological hypertrophy

1. cardiac muscle
2. bladder muscle

15

def. atrophy

decrease in size and/or number of cells

16

is atrophy reversible?

yes

17

2 normal atrophy

1. embryo
2. reversal of hyper

18

mech of atrophy

increased protein degradation and decreased synthesis

19

5 examples of pathological atrophy

1. decreased worload
2. loss of innervation
3. loss of blood supply
4. lack of nutrition
5. loss of hormones

20

def. metaplasia

change of one MATURE cell type to another

21

4 feat. of metaplasia

1. epithelial or mesenchymal cells
2. adaptive to changing env.
3. response to chronic irritation
4. prob. not reversible

22

normal metaplasia

ONLY one - squamous metaplasia in cervix

23

mech of metaplasia

reporogrammming of epithelial stem cells

24

4 patho metaplasias

1. squamous meta of bronchi
2. columnar meta of esoph
3. intestinal meta of stomach
4. squamous meta of bladder

25

3 other cellular alterations

1. aging
2. accumulation of cell contents
3. dysplasia/neoplasia

26

2 types of cell accumulations

1. normal - water, lipids, protein
2. abnormal -endogenous or exogenous

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4 features of accumulation

1. transient or perm
2. harmless of toxic
3. cytoplasm or nucl.
4. produced by the cell or just stored there

28

4 types of patho cell contents

1. steatosis (fatty) liver
2. gauchers
3. alzheimers
4. parkinsons

29

what is normal protein folding

translation and folded with help of chaperones

30

3 options if protein not folded properly

1. repair
2. ubiquitin-proteasome degradation
3. cell damage and apop

31

what is amyloid

pathologic protein that is abnormall folded in B-pleated sheets - resitant to degradation

32

3 types of amyloid

AL - immunoglobin light chain
AA - acute phase
AB - alzheimers

33

what are prions

abnormally folded proteins that can cause other near proteins to fold - mad cow

34

def. neo and dysplasia

cellular alteration resulting in disordered or uncontrolled growth

35

def dysplasia

pre-malignant and MAY be reversible

36

def. neoplasia

refers to a tumor which has lost normal growth control and usually irreversible

37

mech in neoplasia

alterations in genes that control cell growth an survvial - esp in cells that proliferate

38

are dysplasic benign?

NOT neccesarily

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