Flashcards in Substance Use Disorders (Exam 3) Deck (62):
What is a substance use disorder?
problematic pattern of substance use, leading to clinically significant impairment or distress (2 or more problematic patterns in the same 12 months)
What is substance intoxication?
maladaptive and impairing behavior but reversible
What is tolerance?
-need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve desired effect
-markedly diminished effect with continued use of same amount of substance
What is withdrawal?
-characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the specific substance
-same (or similar) substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptom
What is psychological dependence?
use or desire to experience effects of drug to produce pleasure or avoid discomfort
What is positive reinforcement for psychological dependence?
What is negative reinforcement for psychological dependence?
Do both negative and positive reinforcement need to be present for psychological dependence?
What is physical dependence?
-adaptation of the presence of substance (tolerance)
-bodily dependence on substance being present in system
-emergence of characteristic withdrawal profile
Do psychological and physical dependence interact with each other?
ex: physical pain of withdrawal leading to craving
What are depressants?
result in behavioral sedation
What are stimulants?
increase alertness and elevate mood
What do opiates produce?
primarily produce analgesia and euphoria
What are hallucinogens?
after sensory perception
What category of substance abuse is alcohol use in?
What are the physiological effects of alcohol?
central nervous system depressant (influences several neurotransmitter systems, mainly GABA)
What are the issues and problems with the effects of alcohol?
-fetal alcohol syndrome
What can alcohol withdrawal cause?
can cause seizures and can be fetal
What is the category for sedatives/anxiolytics?
What are anxiolytics?
anxiety reducing and sedating
What are the effects of anxiolytics?
effects are similar to larger doses of alcohol
What are the problems with combining sedatives with alcohol?
creates synergistic effect which is lethal
What are psychostimulants?
function via dopamine, NE
What are the psychological effects of psychostimulants?
-followed by "stimulant crash"
What are the effects of caffeine?
blocks the reuptake of adenosine NT(small doeses elevate mood and reduce fatigue)
Can regular use of caffeine result in tolerance and dependence?
What are the effects of nicotine?
stimulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (results in relaxation)
What happens during nicotine withdrawal?
What are the percentage of non-smokers at one year follow up for nicotine dependence?
What is cocaine?
-cause rise of DA and NE
-blocks reuptake of DA and NE
What is amphetamine?
blocks reuptake and causes release of DA and NE
What happens when cocaine and amphetamine wear off?
depletion of dopamine may cause a crash or feel normal
What category are nicotine in?
What category are cocaine in?
What category are amphetamines in?
What are opioids?
-synthetic substances with narcotic effects
What are the effects of opioids?
agonize receptors for endorphins and enkephalins
What does a low dose of opioids do?
induce euphoria, drowsiness, and slowed breathing
What does a high dose of opioids do?
can result in death
Are the withdrawal symptoms severe for opioids?
Do opioids have high levels of tolerance?
What are the abuse of opioids for non medical opioates?
-4.3 million Americans engaged in non medical prescription
-1.4 million used prescription painkillers non-medically for the first time
What is the issue with opioids overdoes?
How many people have tried heroin?
What category is heroin in?
What are hallucinogens?
substances that change the way the user perceives the world
What can hallucinations produce?
-altered sensory perception
What are the category of marijuana?
What are the effects of marijuana?
may exhibit stimulant or depressant effects
What is does the neurobiological research say about etiology of substance use disorders?
drugs affect the pleasure or reward centers in the brain
What are the major branches of etiology about substance abuse?
-behavioral and cultural views
What are the role of positive and negative reinforcement for the etiology of substance abuse?
-escape and avoidance learning
-most see substance abuse and dependence as means to cope with negative experiences
What is the role of expectancy for the etiology of substance abuse?
set and setting (expectancies influence drug use and relapse)
What is the exposure to drugs for the etiology of substance abuse?
-media, family, peers
-parents and family appear critical
What are the societal views about drug abuse for the etiology of substance abuse?
-sign of moral weakness (drug abuse = failure of self-control)
-sign of a disease (caused by some underlying disease process)
What are the biological treatments of substance disorders?
What is the agonist substitution treatment for substance use?
safe(r) drug with a similar chemical composition as the abused drug
(ex: nicotine gum)
What is the antagonistic treatment for substance use?
drug that blocks or counteracts positive effects of substances
What is the aversive treatment of substance use?
drugs makes ingestion of abused substances extremely unpleasant
What is the efficacy of the biological treatments for substance use?
not effective when used alone
What are the psychological treatments for substance use?
-controlled use vs. complete abstinence treatment goals
-community support programs (ex: AA, extremely helpful)