Substance Use Disorders (Exam 3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Substance Use Disorders (Exam 3) Deck (62):
1

What is a substance use disorder?

problematic pattern of substance use, leading to clinically significant impairment or distress (2 or more problematic patterns in the same 12 months)

2

What is substance intoxication?

maladaptive and impairing behavior but reversible

3

What is tolerance?

-need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve desired effect

-markedly diminished effect with continued use of same amount of substance

4

What is withdrawal?

-characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the specific substance

-same (or similar) substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptom

5

What is psychological dependence?

use or desire to experience effects of drug to produce pleasure or avoid discomfort

6

What is positive reinforcement for psychological dependence?

seeking rewards

7

What is negative reinforcement for psychological dependence?

avoiding aversives

8

Do both negative and positive reinforcement need to be present for psychological dependence?

yes

9

What is physical dependence?

-adaptation of the presence of substance (tolerance)

-bodily dependence on substance being present in system

-emergence of characteristic withdrawal profile

10

Do psychological and physical dependence interact with each other?

yes

ex: physical pain of withdrawal leading to craving

11

What are depressants?

result in behavioral sedation

12

What are stimulants?

increase alertness and elevate mood

13

What do opiates produce?

primarily produce analgesia and euphoria

14

What are hallucinogens?

after sensory perception

15

What category of substance abuse is alcohol use in?

depressants

16

What are the physiological effects of alcohol?

central nervous system depressant (influences several neurotransmitter systems, mainly GABA)

17

What are the issues and problems with the effects of alcohol?

-alcohol withdrawal
-fetal alcohol syndrome

18

What can alcohol withdrawal cause?

can cause seizures and can be fetal

19

What is the category for sedatives/anxiolytics?

depressants

20

What are anxiolytics?

anxiety reducing and sedating

21

What are the effects of anxiolytics?

effects are similar to larger doses of alcohol

22

What are the problems with combining sedatives with alcohol?

creates synergistic effect which is lethal

23

What are psychostimulants?

function via dopamine, NE

24

What are the psychological effects of psychostimulants?

-increased energy
-increased alertness
-followed by "stimulant crash"

25

What are the effects of caffeine?

blocks the reuptake of adenosine NT(small doeses elevate mood and reduce fatigue)

26

Can regular use of caffeine result in tolerance and dependence?

yes

27

What are the effects of nicotine?

stimulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (results in relaxation)

28

What happens during nicotine withdrawal?

-nausea
-headache
-fatigue

29

What are the percentage of non-smokers at one year follow up for nicotine dependence?

10-25%

30

What is cocaine?

-cause rise of DA and NE
-blocks reuptake of DA and NE

31

What is amphetamine?

blocks reuptake and causes release of DA and NE

32

What happens when cocaine and amphetamine wear off?

depletion of dopamine may cause a crash or feel normal

33

What category are nicotine in?

stimulants

34

What category are cocaine in?

stimulants

35

What category are amphetamines in?

stimulants

36

What are opioids?

-synthetic substances with narcotic effects

37

What are the effects of opioids?

agonize receptors for endorphins and enkephalins

38

What does a low dose of opioids do?

induce euphoria, drowsiness, and slowed breathing

39

What does a high dose of opioids do?

can result in death

40

Are the withdrawal symptoms severe for opioids?

yes

41

Do opioids have high levels of tolerance?

yes

42

What are the abuse of opioids for non medical opioates?

-4.3 million Americans engaged in non medical prescription

-1.4 million used prescription painkillers non-medically for the first time

43

What is the issue with opioids overdoes?

deaths

44

How many people have tried heroin?

4.8 million

45

What category is heroin in?

opiates

46

What are hallucinogens?

substances that change the way the user perceives the world

47

What can hallucinations produce?

-delusions
-paranoia
-hallucinations
-altered sensory perception

48

What are the category of marijuana?

atypical hallucinations

49

What are the effects of marijuana?

may exhibit stimulant or depressant effects

50

What is does the neurobiological research say about etiology of substance use disorders?

drugs affect the pleasure or reward centers in the brain

51

What are the major branches of etiology about substance abuse?

-neurobiological
-behavioral and cultural views

52

What are the role of positive and negative reinforcement for the etiology of substance abuse?

-escape and avoidance learning
-most see substance abuse and dependence as means to cope with negative experiences

53

What is the role of expectancy for the etiology of substance abuse?

set and setting (expectancies influence drug use and relapse)

54

What is the exposure to drugs for the etiology of substance abuse?

-media, family, peers
-parents and family appear critical

55

What are the societal views about drug abuse for the etiology of substance abuse?

-sign of moral weakness (drug abuse = failure of self-control)

-sign of a disease (caused by some underlying disease process)

56

What are the biological treatments of substance disorders?

-agonist substitution
-antagonistic treatment
-aversive treatment

57

What is the agonist substitution treatment for substance use?

safe(r) drug with a similar chemical composition as the abused drug

(ex: nicotine gum)

58

What is the antagonistic treatment for substance use?

drug that blocks or counteracts positive effects of substances

59

What is the aversive treatment of substance use?

drugs makes ingestion of abused substances extremely unpleasant

60

What is the efficacy of the biological treatments for substance use?

not effective when used alone

61

What are the psychological treatments for substance use?

-controlled use vs. complete abstinence treatment goals

-community support programs (ex: AA, extremely helpful)

62

What are the components of comprehensive treatment and prevention programs for treatments for substance use?

-individual and group therapy
-aversion therapy and convert sensitization
-contingency management
-community reinforcement
-relapse prevention
-preventative efforts via education