Summary 2- Chapter 2: An Overview of the Early History Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Summary 2- Chapter 2: An Overview of the Early History Deck (53):
1

who were The original inhabitants of the British Isles ?

The Picts (iberians? scandinavians?)

2

when did celtic speakers (IE's) come to the british isles?

in 2 waves, around 700 BC

3

when did the Romans invaded and conquered the Celtic population?

in 43 AD

4

where did the romans NOT establish themselves in 43 AD?

in the north (Scotland) and in the west (Wales)

5

why did the Romans abandon Britain in 410 AD?

Because of distance, attacks by Germanic tribes, and stretched military resources

6

who were the germanic settlers that came after the romans?

Angles, Saxons, Jutes (?), Frisians (?), Franks (?)

7

when did the germanic settlers first come?

in 449 AD.

8

- A larger wave of Germanic settlement and conquest came in the :

fifth century

9

According to the story by Bede, what happened?

Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians (?), and Franks (?) were invited (449) by the Celtic Chieftain Vortigern to help fend off attacks by their northern adversaries, the Picts, in the north in exchange for land.

10

The Jutes settled in _______, the Angles in the ______, and the Saxons in the _______ and _____.

Kent (southeast), East Midlands, south (Sussex) and west (Wessex)

11

did the jutes, angles and saxons bring with them one uniform language?

NO! a variety of several closely related West
Germanic dialects spoken along the northern coast of present-day Germany and Denmark.

12

who were the Norse?

Danes and Norwegians, Vikings

13

the Norse from Norway and Denmark (collectively called ______

“Danes”).

14

who rallied the troops and beat the Danes which forced a compromise, and where?

Kind Alfred of Wessex (West Saxon territory)

at the Battle of Edington (Ethandune)

15

what result came from the Battle of Edington (Ethandune)?

the Danelaw

16

England alternately had ____ and ____ kings

English, Norse

17

scandinavian (old norse) pronouns that english took:

them, their, they

18

what is - Probably the source of the third person singular present tense
–(e)s ending (She sings.) replacing –th (She singeth.).
?

the erosion of inflections in the verbal exchanges between Norse and English

19

- Christianity arrived in the _____ century under the direction of _____________

seventh, Celtic (St. Patrick) and Rome-based missionaries.

20

FuÞork alphabet is AKA:

Runes

21

Several runic letters were retained:

þ = voiceless “th” (thin, thick, think, myth, wrath)
ð = voiced “th” (wither, weather, there)
æ/ǣ = /æ/ (pat, bat, rat)
Ƿ ƿ – the wynn rune was also used to represent /w/.

22

Many Latin words came into English. examples:

religious, academic, learning

23

why did William (The Conqueror) believe he had a claim to the English throne?

Because of his family connection with Viking kings who had previously ruled England

24

who was Edward The Confessor ?

half-Norman English king) died, and a battled for succession ensued between Harald Godwinson and William.

25

when did William invaded and defeated (and killed) Harald ?

in 1066

26

what piece of art is based on the battle in 1066?

the bayeux tapestry

27

when did King John lose Normandy (to Philip, King of France)?

in 1204, which was the beginning of a turn-around in the status of English.

28

when did English become the official legal language and the language of Parliament?

by 1362

29

an example of assimilation:

impossible (

30

an example of simplification (of consonant clusters) :

write, gnat, castle, Christmas)

31

an example of loss of a sound:

gh in eight, brought, through

32

what is metathesis?

reversal of sounds (three - third)

33

what is apocope?

loss of a final sound (helpe => help, hope)

34

what is The substrate theory?

speakers of one language need to learn the language of their new
conquerors = they speak it with an accent.
Speakers of another language move into a new area and their language gradually
displaces the original language of the area. This happened numerous times at
the beginning of the first millennium AD. (The Romans in Gaul and
elsewhere, Germanic tribes in Germany and England)

35

what is The Great Vowel Shift in English (long vowels)?

- The high front and back long vowels became diphthongs.
- The other long vowels moved up to fill the vacant locations

36

what types of words are highly resistant to change?

numbers, pronouns, other grammar words

37

what is Systematic sound change?

the change affects many words consistently throughout the system.
English: one two three four five six seven eight nine ten
German: eins zwei drei vier fünf sechs sieben acht neun zehn
(German v is pronounced f.)

38

Another systematic difference between english and german:

English: three, then, think, thank, through
German: drei, dann, denken, danken, durch

39

Grimm’s Law:

Voiceless Indo-European stops became voiceless fricatives in Germanic.

40

Inflections tend to :

erode

41

what, in language, is Most susceptible to change?

vocabulary

42

what are Inflections?

bound morphemes (attached to words) which signal a variety of grammatical functions.

43

what is case?

A designation used to identify the function of a noun or pronoun in a sentence. (subject, direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition, possession, ….)

44

Latin grammarians imagined the base form to be :

upright

45

The cases signalled :

grammatical function

46

the subject case is called:

nominative

47

the direct object case is called:

accusative

48

the possessive case is called

genitive

49

the indirect object case is called:

dative

50

Modern English has lost most case inflections and uses word order and prepositions in most instances to signal sentence function, but other languages (German, Slavic languages) and Old English relied mainly on different case forms.
. what is an EXCEPTION of this?

pronouns!

51

Modern English and French rely mainly on _______ to signal subject and direct object functions.

word order

52

strong verbs are AKA?

irregular

53

STRong verbs are inherited from:

IE (used to be regular)