Flashcards in Summary 2- Chapter 2: An Overview of the Early History Deck (53):
who were The original inhabitants of the British Isles ?
The Picts (iberians? scandinavians?)
when did celtic speakers (IE's) come to the british isles?
in 2 waves, around 700 BC
when did the Romans invaded and conquered the Celtic population?
in 43 AD
where did the romans NOT establish themselves in 43 AD?
in the north (Scotland) and in the west (Wales)
why did the Romans abandon Britain in 410 AD?
Because of distance, attacks by Germanic tribes, and stretched military resources
who were the germanic settlers that came after the romans?
Angles, Saxons, Jutes (?), Frisians (?), Franks (?)
when did the germanic settlers first come?
in 449 AD.
- A larger wave of Germanic settlement and conquest came in the :
According to the story by Bede, what happened?
Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians (?), and Franks (?) were invited (449) by the Celtic Chieftain Vortigern to help fend off attacks by their northern adversaries, the Picts, in the north in exchange for land.
The Jutes settled in _______, the Angles in the ______, and the Saxons in the _______ and _____.
Kent (southeast), East Midlands, south (Sussex) and west (Wessex)
did the jutes, angles and saxons bring with them one uniform language?
NO! a variety of several closely related West
Germanic dialects spoken along the northern coast of present-day Germany and Denmark.
who were the Norse?
Danes and Norwegians, Vikings
the Norse from Norway and Denmark (collectively called ______
who rallied the troops and beat the Danes which forced a compromise, and where?
Kind Alfred of Wessex (West Saxon territory)
at the Battle of Edington (Ethandune)
what result came from the Battle of Edington (Ethandune)?
England alternately had ____ and ____ kings
scandinavian (old norse) pronouns that english took:
them, their, they
what is - Probably the source of the third person singular present tense
–(e)s ending (She sings.) replacing –th (She singeth.).
the erosion of inflections in the verbal exchanges between Norse and English
- Christianity arrived in the _____ century under the direction of _____________
seventh, Celtic (St. Patrick) and Rome-based missionaries.
FuÞork alphabet is AKA:
Several runic letters were retained:
þ = voiceless “th” (thin, thick, think, myth, wrath)
ð = voiced “th” (wither, weather, there)
æ/ǣ = /æ/ (pat, bat, rat)
Ƿ ƿ – the wynn rune was also used to represent /w/.
Many Latin words came into English. examples:
religious, academic, learning
why did William (The Conqueror) believe he had a claim to the English throne?
Because of his family connection with Viking kings who had previously ruled England
who was Edward The Confessor ?
half-Norman English king) died, and a battled for succession ensued between Harald Godwinson and William.
when did William invaded and defeated (and killed) Harald ?
what piece of art is based on the battle in 1066?
the bayeux tapestry
when did King John lose Normandy (to Philip, King of France)?
in 1204, which was the beginning of a turn-around in the status of English.
when did English become the official legal language and the language of Parliament?
an example of assimilation:
an example of simplification (of consonant clusters) :
write, gnat, castle, Christmas)
an example of loss of a sound:
gh in eight, brought, through
what is metathesis?
reversal of sounds (three - third)
what is apocope?
loss of a final sound (helpe => help, hope)
what is The substrate theory?
speakers of one language need to learn the language of their new
conquerors = they speak it with an accent.
Speakers of another language move into a new area and their language gradually
displaces the original language of the area. This happened numerous times at
the beginning of the first millennium AD. (The Romans in Gaul and
elsewhere, Germanic tribes in Germany and England)
what is The Great Vowel Shift in English (long vowels)?
- The high front and back long vowels became diphthongs.
- The other long vowels moved up to fill the vacant locations
what types of words are highly resistant to change?
numbers, pronouns, other grammar words
what is Systematic sound change?
the change affects many words consistently throughout the system.
English: one two three four five six seven eight nine ten
German: eins zwei drei vier fünf sechs sieben acht neun zehn
(German v is pronounced f.)
Another systematic difference between english and german:
English: three, then, think, thank, through
German: drei, dann, denken, danken, durch
Voiceless Indo-European stops became voiceless fricatives in Germanic.
Inflections tend to :
what, in language, is Most susceptible to change?
what are Inflections?
bound morphemes (attached to words) which signal a variety of grammatical functions.
what is case?
A designation used to identify the function of a noun or pronoun in a sentence. (subject, direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition, possession, ….)
Latin grammarians imagined the base form to be :
The cases signalled :
the subject case is called:
the direct object case is called:
the possessive case is called
the indirect object case is called:
Modern English has lost most case inflections and uses word order and prepositions in most instances to signal sentence function, but other languages (German, Slavic languages) and Old English relied mainly on different case forms.
. what is an EXCEPTION of this?
Modern English and French rely mainly on _______ to signal subject and direct object functions.
strong verbs are AKA?