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Geography > Summer Trials 2017 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Summer Trials 2017 Deck (50):
1

Orbital Changes

Changes in the pathway of the earth around the sun

2

Quaternary period

The period of geological time from about 2.6 million years ago to the present. It is characterised by the appearance and development of humans and includes the Pleistocene and the holocene Epochs

3

Abrasion

Erosion caused by rocket and boulders in the base of the glacier acting like a giant file scratching and scraping the rocks below.

4

Arête

A sharp knife- like ridge formed between two corries cutting back by processes of erosion and freeze thaw.

5

Bulldozing

Ice pushes material of all shapes and sizes as it moves slowly forward.

6

Corrie

Armchair-shaped hollow in the mountainside formed by glacial erosion, rotational slip and freeze-thaw weathering. This is where the valley glacier begins. When the ice melts, it can leave a small circular lake called a tarn.

7

Drumlin

A hill made of glacial till deposited by a moving glacier, usually elongated or oval in shape, with the longer axis parallel to the former direction of ice.

8

Erratics

Rocks which have been transported and deposited by a glacier some distance from their source region.

9

Freeze-thaw Weathering

It occurs in cold climates when temperatures are often around freezing point and where exposed rocks contains many cracks. Water enters the crack during the warmer days and freezes during the colder night. As the water turns into ice it expands and exerts pressure on the surrounding rock, causing pieces to break off.

10

Glacial Trough

A river valley widened and deepened by the erosive actions of a glacier; it becomes 'U' shaped instead of the normal 'V' shaped of a river valley.

11

Hanging Valley

A tributary valley to the main glacier, too cold and high up for ice to be able to easily move. It therefore was not eroded as much as the lower main valley, and today is often the site for a waterfall crashing several hundred metres to the main valley floor.

12

Land Use Conflicts

Disagreements which arise when different users of the land do not agree on how it should be used.

13

Moraine

Frost-shattered rock debris and material eroded from the valley floor and sides, transported and deposited by glaciers.

14

Outwash

Material, chiefly sand or gravel, deposited by meltwater streams in front of, and underneath, a glacier. The material is sorted and rounded by water action.

15

Plucking

A type of erosion where melt water in the glacier freezes onto rocks, and as the ice moves forward it plucks or pulls out large pieces along the rock joints.

16

Pyramidal Peak

Where several carries cut back to meet at a central point, the mountain takes the form of a steep pyramid.

17

Ribbon Lake

A long, narrow lake found in glaciated valleys formed in locations where the glacier had more erosive power, eg in areas of softer rock, where the valley gradient temporarily steepened or a tributary glacier joined the main valley.

18

Rotational Slip

This occurs when the ice moves in a circular motion. This process can hero to erode hollows in the landscape, and deepen hollow into bowl shapes.

19

Till

An unsorted mixture of sand, clay and boulders carried by a glacier and deposited as ground moraine over a large area.

20

Truncated Spur

A former river valley spur which has been sliced off by a valley glacier, forming cliff-like edges.

21

Abiotic

Relating to non-living things

22

Biotic

Relating to living things

23

Consumer

Creature that eats animals and/or plant matter

24

Decomposer

An organism such as a bacterium or fungus, that breaks down dead tissue, which is then recycled to the environment.

25

Ecosystem

A community of plants and animals that interact with each other and their physical environment

26

Food Chain

The connections between different organisms (plants and animals) that rely on one another as their source of food

27

Food Web

A complex hierarchy of plants and animals relying on each other for food

28

Nutrient Cycling

A set of processes whereby organisms extract minerals necessary for growth from soil or water, before passing them on through the food chain- and ultimately back to the soil and water.

29

Global Ecosystems

Very large ecological areas on the earth's surface (or biomes), with fauna and flora (animals and plants) adapting to their environment. Examples include tropical rainforest and hot desert.

30

Producer

an organism or plant that is able to absorb energy from the sun through photosynthesis.

31

Biodiversity

The variety of life in the world or a particular habitat

32

Commercial Farming

Farming to sel produce for a produce to retailers or food precessing companies.

33

Debt reduction

Countries are relived of some of their debt in return for protecting their environments.

34

Deforestation

The chopping down and removal of trees to clear an area of forest.

35

Ecotourism

Responsible travel to natural areas that conserve the environment, sustains the wellbeing of the local people, and may involve education. it is usually carried out in small groups and has minimal impact on the local ecosystem.

36

Logging

The business of cutting down trees and transporting the logs to sawmills

37

Mineral Extraction

The removal of solid mineral resources from the earth. These resources include ores, which contain commercially valuable amounts of metals, such as iron and aluminium; precious stones, such as diamonds; building stones, such as granite; and solid fuels, such as coal and oil shale

38

Selective Logging

The cutting out of trees which are mature or inferior, to encourage new growth of the remaining trees in a forest or a wood

39

Soil erosion

Removal of topsoil faster that it can be replaced, due to natural (water and win action), animal, and human activity. Topsoil is the top layer of soil and is the most fertile because it contains the most organic, nutrient- rich materials

40

Subsistence Farming

A type of agriculture producing food and material for the benefit only of the farmer and his family

41

Sustainability

Actions and forms of progress that meets the needs of the present without reducing the ability of future generations to meet their needs.

42

What does glacial abrasion leave behind?

Scratches on the hard bedrock called 'striations'

43

What does glacial plucking leave behind?

It leaves gouges on the hard bedrock called 'chatter marks' or 'crescentic gouges'

44

What is the glacial trough that meets the coastline and can be flooded by post-glacial sea levels to form a steep inlet known as?

Fjord

45

Waterfalls are often formed where the hanging valley meets what?

The main valley

46

A stream that is flowing through a glacial trough that is too small for a main valley is called what?

A misfit stream

47

A roche moutonée is a hard bedrock outcrop found in a valley that has been formed by what?

Glacial erosion

48

Biomes are large scaled what?

Ecosystems

49

What is the example of biomes that vary in relation to each other in many ways? (there isn't just one)

Tropical rainforests in that most of the nutrients within the ecosystems are storied in the biomass as opposed to in the litter or the soil.

50

How many countries have rainforests in their boundaries§

62