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Flashcards in Superficial abdominal wall Deck (31):
1

What is the abdomen ?

portion of the trunk that lies between the thorax and pelvis. It is bounded above by the diaphragm and below by the plane of the pelvic inlet (superior pelvic aperture).

2

What are the boundaries of the abdominal wall?

• Superior: bound by the cartilage of the 7-12 ribs, diaphragm and xiphoid process of the sternum.
• Inferior: bound by the bones of the pelvis and the inguinal ligament. Inguinal ligament can be visualized by dropping one leg to the floor while lying on one’s back.

3

What is the function of the abdominal wall?

Support and protect the abdominal and retroperitoneal structures.

4

What is the abdominal cavity?

the space surrounded by the multilayered abdominal wall.

5

Boundaries of the Abdominal Cavity

• It is divided from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm but is continuous with the pelvic cavity.
• It extends superiorly into the thoracic cage to the 4th intercostal space.
• It extends inferiorly to the pelvic inlet.
• Anterior and lateral: superficial abdominal wall.
• Posterior: vertebrae and posterior abdominal muscles.

6

Landmarks of abdominal cavity

• Xiphoid process of the sternum.
• Ribs 7-12.
• Infrasternal angle – formed below the xiphosternal joint by the diverging cartilages of the 7th, 8th, 9th costal cartilages.
• Costal margin - Demarcation of the thorax and abdomen at the medial borders of the 7-10 costal cartilages.
• Iliac Crest - Highest (most superior portion) is located at the level of L4 (4th lumbar vertebrae)
• Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS) – projection on anterior border of ilium at anterior end of crest.
• Posterior Superior Iliac Spine (PSIS) - projection on posterior border of ilium at posterior end of crest.
• Pubic Crest – A thickening on the anterior part of the body of the pubis.
• Pubic tubercle – The prominent bump where the pubic crest ends laterally.

7

How is the abdomen divided?

Two different planes:
Quadrant
region

8

What are the quadrants?

• A line is drawn down the midline and a horizontal line is drawn through the umbilicus to create four quadrants:
the right upper quadrant (RUQ),
right lower quadrant (RLQ),
left upper quadrant (LUQ),
left lower quadrant (LLQ).

9

contents of RUQ

liver,
gallbladder,
stomach (pylorus),
duodenum, pancreas,
right adrenal gland,
right kidney,
hepatic flexure,
ascending colon,
transverse colon

10

contents of LUQ

liver,
spleen,
stomach,
jejunum,
ileum,
pancreas,
left adrenal gland,
left kidney,
splenic flexure,
descending colon,
transverse colon

11

contents of RLQ

ascending colon,
ileum,
cecum,
appendix,
right ovary,
right fallopian tube,
right ureter,
right spermatic cord.

12

contents of LLQ

: descending colon,
sigmoid colon,
left ovary,
left fallopian tube,
left ureter,
left spermatic cord.

13

How are the regions divided?

• Two vertical lines are drawn (midclavicular line - MCL) and two horizontal lines are drawn (subcostal plane and transtubercular plane) to create nine regions.

14

What are the regions?

• Right hypochondriac region
• Epigastric region
• Left hypochondriac region
• Right lumbar region
• Umbilical region
• Left lumbar region
• Right iliac region
• Hypogastric region
• Left iliac region


15

• Aponeurosis

Dense, regular, collagenous connective tissue that joins a muscle to its origin or insertion. A flattened tendon

16

• Fascia

A sheet of connective tissue that covers the muscle. Named after the muscle it is covering

17

• Linea semilunaris

The lateral border of the rectus muscle that assumes a convex shape. Runs from the 9th costal cartilage to the pubic tubercle.

18

• Linea alba

White line running vertically the length of the anterior abdominal wall and separates the bilateral rectus sheaths. Formed by the decussating aponeurotic fibers of the rectus sheath.

19

• Linea nigra

Heavily pigmented line in the midline external to the linea alba.

20

• Umbilicus

At the level of the intervertebral disc between L3 and L4 vertebrae. Is at the level of the T10 dermatome. Is a scar.

21

• Umbilical ring

Fibrinous ring though which the umbilical vein, umbilical arteries, and urachus pass though in a newborn

22

• Epigastric fossa

also known as the stomach pit. Slight depression in the epigastric region just inferior to the xiphoid process.

23

• Transpyloric plane

plane passing though the level of the pylorus of the stomach.

24

• Subcostal plane

plane passing through the inferior border of the 10th costal cartilage on each side.

25

• Transtubercular plane

plane passing through the iliac tubercles and the body of L5. The tubercles are approximately 5 cm posterior to the ASIS and are palpable.

26

• Transumbilical plane

plane passing through the umbilicus and the intervertebral disc between L3 and L4.

27

• Midclavicular plane

plane passing from the midpoint of the clavicles to the midinguinal points.

28

• Median plane

plane passing longitudinally through the body dividing it into right and left halves. Also known as midline

29

• Tendinous intersections

Three lines that cross the rectus muscles. Are located at the level of the xiphoid process, the level of the umbilicus, and halfway between the xiphoid process and the umbilicus

30

• Hernia

– defect in the parietal abdominal wall fascia and muscle through which intra-abdominal or preperitoneal contents can protrude

31

• Neurovascular plane

plane that exists between the internal oblique and transverse abdominal muscles. Contains the thoracoabdominal nerves, subcostal nerve, iliohypogastric nerve, ilioinguinal nerve, inferior intercostal artery, subcostal artery, lumbar arteries, and deep circumflex iliac artery. plane that exists between the internal oblique and transverse abdominal muscles. Contains the thoracoabdominal nerves, subcostal nerve, iliohypogastric nerve, ilioinguinal nerve, inferior intercostal artery, subcostal artery, lumbar arteries, and deep circumflex iliac artery.