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Anatomy Mini 1 > Superficial and Deep Back > Flashcards

Flashcards in Superficial and Deep Back Deck (30):
0

Extrinsic Musculature

Consists of superficial and intermediate layers of back.
Superficial layer connects the axial skeleton with superior appendicular skeleton.
Intermediate layer is only associated with axial skeleton.

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Extrinsic Musculature control and Innervation

Control limb (superficial) and respiratory/proprioceptive (intermediate) movements.

Innervated by Anterior rami of spinal nerves (1 exception- CN XI)

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Intrinsic Musculature

Group of muscles located DEEP within.
Only associated with axial skeleton.

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Superficial Extrinsic Muscles of the Back

- Trapezius (1st Layer)
- Latissimus Dorsi (1st Layer)
- Levator Scapulae (2nd Layer)
- Rhomboid Major (2nd Layer)
- Rhomboid Minor (2nd Layer)

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Trapezius: Insertion, Action and Innervation

Insertion: Spine and Acromion of Scapula

Action: Descending = elevation of scapula, Middle = retracts scapula, Ascending = depresses scapula, Descending + ascending = superior rotation of shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint)

Innervation: Spinal Accessory Nerve (Cranial Nerve XI)

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Latissimus Dorsi: Insertion, Action and Innervation

Insertion: Intertubercular sulcus of humerus (anterior aspect of arm)

Action: Extends, adducts, and medially rotates the humerus at the glenohumeral joint, will also posteriorly extend arm

Innervation: Thoracodorsal Nerve

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Levator Scapulae: Insertion, action, Innervation

Insertion: Medial border of scapula, superior to root of scapular spine

Action: elevates scapula, rotates glenoid cavity inferiorly

Innervation: Dorsal scapular nerve

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Rhomboid Minor: Insertion

Insertion: Medial end of scapular spine

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Rhomboid Major: Insertion

Insertion: Medial border of scapula

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Rhomboid Major and Minor: Action and Innervation

Action: Retract scapula and inferior rotation of shoulder joint. Fix scapula to thoracic wall

Innervation: Dorsal scapular nerve

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Trapezius Palsy

Scapula translated laterally and downwardly rotated. Treated surgically with muscle transfers of levator scapulae and rhomboids.

Eden-Lange Procedure: Levator Scapulae is moved to the scapular spine, Rhomboids moved to posterior inferior scapula

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Intermediate Extrinsic Back Muscles

- Serratus Posterior Superior (SPS)
- Serratus Posterior Inferior (SPI)

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Serratus Posterior Superior (SPS): Insertion, Action, Innervation

Insertion: Ribs 2-4

Action: Elevate ribs 2-4 (But FUNCTION is proprioception during respiration)

Innervation: T2 to T5 anterior rami of spinal nerves

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Serratus Posterior Inferior (SPI): Insertion, Action, Innervation

Insertion: Ribs 8-12

Action depress ribs 8-12 (FUNCTION: proprioception during respiration)

Innervation: T9 to T12 anterior rami of spinal nerves

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Intrinsic Back Muscles

Deep Back Muscles, Innervated by dorsal (posterior) rami of spinal nerves
SUPERFICIAL: Splenius (Cervicis and Capitis)
INTERMEDIATE: Erector Spinae group (Spinalis, Longissimus, Iliocostalis)
DEEP: Transversospinalis group (Semispinalis, Multifidus, Rotatores)

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Splenius Cervicis and Capitis: Insertion, Action and Innervation

Insertion: Cervicis- Transverse processes of C1 to C4. Capitis- Mastoid process and nuchal line

Action: Unilaterally- laterally flex the neck and rotate head to the side of active muscle. Bilaterally- Extend head and neck

Innervation: Posterior rami of spinal nerves

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Spinalis: Action and Innervation

Action: Unilaterally – laterally flex vertebral column. Bilaterally – Extend vertebral column and head

Innervation: Posterior rami of spinal nerves

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Longissimus: Action and Innervation

Action:Unilaterally – laterally flex vertebral column. Bilaterally – Extend vertebral column and head.

Innervation: Posterior rami of spinal nerves

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Iliocostalis: Action and Innervation

Action:Unilaterally – laterally flex vertebral column. Bilaterally – Extend vertebral column and head

Innervation: Posterior rami of spinal nerves

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Semispinalis: Action and Innervation

Action: Extends head, cervical and thoracic vertebral column and performs contralateral rotation of the same

Innervation: Posterior rami of spinal nerves

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Multifidus: Action and Innervation

Action: Extension, lateral flexion and rotation of the vertebral column

Innervation: Posterior rami of spinal nerves

Muscle most involved in localize lower back pain

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Rotatores: Action and Innervation

Action: Rotates vertebral column, functions to stabilize the vertebrae

Innervation: Posterior rami of spinal nerves

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Dermatome

A unilateral area of skin innervated by the sensory (GSA) fibers of a single spinal nerve.

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Muscles of the Deep Posterior Neck

- Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
- Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor
- Obliquus Capitis Superior
- Obliquus Capitis Inferior

All are innervated by suboccipital nerve, which is the C1 spinal nerve posterior ramus

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Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor: Origin, Insertion and Action

Origin: C1 Posterior Arch
Insertion: Inferior nuchal line
Action: Extension of the Atlanto-occipital joint, ipsilateral rotation of the atlanto-axial joint

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Rectus Capitis Posterior Major: Origin, Insertion and Action

Origin: C2 Spinous
Insertion: Inferior nuchal line
Action: Extension of the Atlanto-occipital joint, ipsilateral rotation of the atlanto-axial joint

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Obliquus capitis superior: Origin, Insertion, Action, Innervation

Origin: C1 transverse process
Insertion: Occipital bone between superior and inferior nuchal lines
Action: Extension and lateral flexion of the atlanto-occipital joint
Innervation: Suboccipital nerve

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Obliquus capitis inferior: Origin, Insertion, Action, Innervation

Origin: C2 posterior arch
Insertion: C1 transverse process
Action: Ipsilateral rotation of the atlanto-axial joint
Innervation: Suboccipital nerve

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Strain

Stretching or slight tearing of muscle fibers

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Sprain

Only tearing of ligamentous tissue