Superficial triangles and cervical viscera Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Superficial triangles and cervical viscera Deck (50):
1

the platysma is innervated by what?

the cervical branch of the facial nerve

2

3 landmarks of the neck

CV6
anterior scalene m
greater cornu of the hyoid bone

3

lateral neck dissection layer 1

platysma and external jugular vein

4

lateral neck dissection layer 2

SCM and spinal accessory nerve

5

lateral neck dissection layer 3

ansa cervicalis, superior omohyoid m, inferior omohyoid, sternohyoid

6

posteior triangle borders

SCM, middle 1/3 clavicle, trapezius m
roof = platysma and fascia
floor = prevertebral fascia

7

spinal accessory nerve enters posterior triabgle where and goes where

slightyly above midpiont and deep to SCM, courses diagnally across levator scapulae
-receives contributions from C2-3 for SCM and C3-4 for trapezius

8

what is a brachial fistula

pouches from embryological remnants do not close and cysts form along the length of the SCM

9

superficial branches of the cervical plexus

lesser occipital nerve (C2-3)
great auricular nerve (C2-3)
transverse cervical nerve (C2-3)
supraclavicular nerves (C3-4)

10

what does lesser occipital nerve supply

GSA fibers to postero-lateral aspect of head
courses along posterior border of SCM

11

what does great auricular nerve innervate and where does it go

ascends vertically across the SCM to innervate skin of parotid and mastoid regions

12

transverse cervical nerve location and innervation

crosses SCM at midpoint
innervagtes skin of anterior neck

13

supraclavicular nerves branches, cross what, innervate what

medial, intermediate, and lateral branches
cross superficial to clavicle
innervate skin of upper chest and shoulders

14

what is the phrenic nerve sandwiched in between

the anterior scalene muscle (posterior)
subclavian vein (anterior)

15

the omohyoid muscle is innervated by what

ansa cervicalis

16

the inferior belly of the omohyoid is immediately deep to what and subdivides the posterior triangle into what

platysma m
-occipital triangle (superiorly)
-supraclavicular triangle (inferiorly)

17

VNM ANM

subclavian vein, phrenic nerve, anterior scalene
subclavian artery, brachial plexus, middle scalene

18

in the longitudinal vertical groove between the trachea and esophagus is the what

recurrent laryngeal nerve

19

what is the border of the carotid triangle?
what contents inside

superior omohyoid, posterior digastric, SCM
-internal jugular vein, ansa cervicalis, and cranial nerves IX,X,XII

20

what is the border of the anterior triangle of neck

apex of chin to mastoid process, anterior midline of neck, anterior border SCM
-covered by platysma and investing fascia

21

what forms the apex of the submandibular triangle

the hyoid bone

22

what muscles are suprahyoid

mylohyoid, geniohyoid, digastric, stylohyoid

23

borders of submandibular triangle and contents inside

suprahyoid region, bound by inferior edge of mandible, and anterior and posterior digastric, hyoid bone is apex

-submandibular LNs
-submandibular and sublingual glands
-facial vein and artery
-marginal branch of facial nerve
-lingual nerve, IX,XII

24

where is the hypoglossal nerve located

between the inferior border of the posterior digastric and the tip of the hyoid bone

25

what is the action of the suprhyoid muscles

depress (open) the mouth

26

what is the submandibular gland drained by

submandibular duct (wharton's duct)

27

submandibular duct empties into the floor of the mouth at the apex of the ____

sublingual caruncle

28

what nerve spirals around the submandibular duct and in what direction

lingual, supero-lateral to infero-medial

29

sympathetics to the submandibular gland

postganglionic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion course in external carotid and facial plexus then to gland

30

what does the hypoglossal nerve provide

GSE fibers to all intrinsic muscles of the tongue

31

what is the anterior digastric muscle innervated by

mylohyoid nerve

32

what is the posterior digastric innervated by

facial n

33

what is the stylohyoid innervated by

facial n

34

what is mylohyoid m innervated by

mylohyoid nerve

35

what is geniohyoid innervated by

C1

36

what is hyoglossus innervated by

hypoglossal nerve

37

thyroid gland: in 50% of specimens a _____ lobe may do what

pyramidal lobe may extend upwards from isthmus along midline

38

some accesory thyroid tissue, embryological remnant of _________ may continue superiorly through hyoid bone towards foramen caecum of tongue, cysts may for along the course of this tisue

thyroglossal duct

39

blood supply of the thyroid gland

superior thyroid artery from the external carotid or common carotid

-inferior thyroid artery from thyrocervical trunk

-lowest thyroid artery from brachiocephalic, aorta, or left common carotid

40

drainage of thyroid gland

superior and middle thyroid veins drain into IJV
inferior thyroid vein drains into brachiocephalic vein

41

what are the parathyroid glands supplied by

inferior thyroid artery

42

what does removal of parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy result in

tetany and ultimaterly death

43

the trachea extends from where to where

CV6-TV2

44

where does the thyroid isthmus corss

anterior surface of tracheal rings 2-4

45

what is a tracheotomy

emergency airway cut through tracheal rings 2-4, been replaced by cricothyrotomy

46

what is a tracheostomy

extensive surgical procedure to open a long term airway through tracheal rings 2-4 usually for a ventilator

47

penetrating wounds to the base of the neck may cause what

collapse lung and pneumothorax

48

what is the cupula of pleura

portion of thoracic cavity that extends into the base of neck between scalenes and longus colli muscles
-apex is at mid-clavicular line and occupied by apical portion of lung

49

what makes external jugular vein

posterior auricular and retromandibular veins

50

what are the subdivisions of the anterior triangle of the neck

muscular, carotid, submandibular, submental