Superpowers - EQ1 - What are superpowers & how have they changed overtime? Flashcards

1
Q

Define superpower

A
  • a country with the capacity to project dominating power & influence anywhere in the world, sometimes in more than one region of the globe at a time
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2
Q

Define a hyperpower

A
  • an unchallenged superpower that is dominant in all aspects of power e.g USA (1990-2010) & Britain (1850-1910)
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3
Q

Define hard power

A
  • power through force or coercion and is likely to involve military power or economic sanctions
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4
Q

Define soft power

A
  • exerting influence through favour and persuasion, and is therefore likely to be based on cultural power
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5
Q
  • These mechanisms of maintaining power & extending global influence sit on the spectrum from “….’ to ‘….’ power, and vary in their effectiveness
  • It is argued that true superpowers need to Combine both a ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ power approach to become a ‘….’ power
A
  • hard
  • soft
  • smart
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6
Q

What are the characteristics of soft power

A
  • Political Values - its democracy or its overseas image.
  • Culture
  • Foreign Policy
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7
Q

What are the characteristics of hard power

A
  • Blue-Water Navy - Military force which operate across the deep waters of open oceans.
  • Green-Water Navy - Military force which operates on coastal waters, ports and harbour
  • Military Personnel - The amount of people who are members of the state’s armed forces
  • Defence Spending - Money spent by the govt. for weapons, equipment, and soldiers
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8
Q

Exemplify the spetrum of hard to soft power

A
  • Hard power- Military force or its threat
  • Economic sanctions and diplomatic actions
  • Coercive policy e.g. tied aid or trade agreements
  • Political influence, moral authority, economic influence
  • Soft power - Cultural attractiveness
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9
Q

What is smart power

A
  • Joseph Nye claimed that the world’s most powerful and influential countries use ‘smart power’ - a combination of hard and soft power
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10
Q

Give examples of hard power

A
  • Military presence and force
  • Military action, or the threat of it
  • Britain’s military actions taken in Iraq and Afghanistan
  • Military alliances such as NATO
  • Diplomatic threats to use force if negotiation fails
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11
Q

Give examples of soft power

A
  • Using the media to promote a particular image and message
  • The global dominance of the USA through TNCs such as Coca Cola and McDonald’s, as well as media, TV, films etc.
  • Culture and ideology
  • Exporting culture in the form of film and
  • TV, or globally recognised brands
  • Exerting influence through favour and persuasion
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12
Q

Give examples of economic power

A
  • Favouring certain trade partners
  • Using aid to influence policy
  • Economic sanctions such as those taken against Iran to try to prevent it from developing its military nuclear capability
  • Trade blocs and alliances
  • Aid and trade
  • Giving allies economic and technical help
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13
Q

What is the soft power 30

A
  • In 2019, a report was produced which showed the 30 most influential countries based on their ‘soft’ power
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14
Q

What was the UK’s soft 30 rankings in 2016 & 2019

A
  • 2019 - 2nd - 79.47
  • 2016 - 2nd - 75.97
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15
Q

What was the USA’s soft 30 rankings in 2016 & 2019

A
  • 2019 - 5th - 77.40
  • 2016 - 1st - 77.96
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16
Q

What was France’s soft 30 rankings in 2016 & 2019

A
  • 2019 - 1st - 80.28
  • 2016 - 5th - 72.14
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17
Q

What was Japan’s soft 30 rankings in 2016 & 2019

A
  • 2019 - 8th - 75.71
  • 2016 - 7th - 67.78
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18
Q

What are the human charcteristics from which France’s geopolitical power stems from

A
  • rich history of cultural, political & economic influence
  • dominant colonial power of 80 colonies
  • strong & diverse economy
  • member of G7 groups –> provides leverage in global affairs
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19
Q

What are the human charcteristics from which Japan’s geopolitical power stems from

A
  • 3rd largest economy
  • GDP $4.25 billion
  • economic power provides investment capabilities
  • finanical stability enhancing its geopolitical power & influence
  • Japans technological advancements
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20
Q

What are the human charcteristics from which the UK’s geopolitical power stems from

A
  • major institutes like the BBC World Service & British Council retains the ability to drive global action via membership of international organisation like the UN security council & Commonwealth & NATO
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21
Q

What are the human charcteristics from which the USA’s geopolitical power stems from

A
  • 1.4 million active military personnel
  • GDP per capita $76,330
  • Unemployment rate of 3.9%
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22
Q

What are the physical charcteristics from which France’s geopolitical power stems from

A
  • borders 8 countries facilitating trade & connectivity
  • natural resources abundant - coal, iron, uranium
  • coastline - access to maritime traderoutes
  • energy secure –> nuclear power, geopolitical influence
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23
Q

What are the physical charcteristics from which Japan’s geopolitical power stems from

A
  • very mountainous - 3/4 of its land –> military advantage
  • vast fising resources bordering the Pacific Ocean
24
Q

What are the physical charcteristics from which the UK’s geopolitical power stems from

A
  • island with easy accessibility & established infrastructure,
25
Q

What are the physical charcteristics from which the USA’s geopolitical power stems from

A
  • tropical climate & in some
  • 60% of electricity is from fossil fuels
  • high vegetation
  • 21% from renewable sources
26
Q

What characteristics have helped place France as 1st in 2019

A
  • strong presidential leadership admist wider geopolitical uncertainity e.g rising fuel prices
  • French culture continues amass enormous global appeal
27
Q

What characteristics have helped place Japan as 8th in 2019

A
  • hosted the G20 summit in 2019 discussing financial issues
  • 2019 Rugby wold cup
  • strong performances in engagement & culture sub-indicies
28
Q

What characteristics have helped place the UK as 2nd in 2019

A
  • despite Brexit the Uk continues to perform well across engagement, culture, education & digital sub indicies
  • UK tech companies secured record high foreign investments & has many companies thriving in fiercely competitive markets
  • Govt has been pushing ‘global Britain’ narrative aggressively in response to claims of a more inward looking post Brexit Britain
29
Q

What characteristics have helped place the USA as 5th in 2019

A
  • most dominant in culture, education & capital
  • more top ranked unis than any other country
  • hosts the most international students
  • tech based innovation & digital diplomacy
30
Q

What are examples of France exerting hard power

A
  • most successful military power in Europe
  • military alliances - NATO & EU
  • 8th largest defence budget
31
Q

What are examples of Japan exerting hard power

A
  • alliance between Japan, China & NK after WW2
  • approx 250,000 military personnel
  • revise the ban on collective self-defense, which goes hand in hand with reassessing arms exports, new partnerships, and counterterrorism policies
  • provide $200 million of non-lethal humanitarian aid to countries fighting ISIS
32
Q

What are examples of the UK exerting hard power

A
  • member of NATO
  • £22 billion generated in defence annually
  • military action with Iraq war & Afghanistan
  • shipment of missiles to Ukraine
33
Q

What are examples of the USA exerting hard power

A
  • member of NATO & OAS
  • Japan & US security treaty
  • hrad power policy with Iraq & Afghanistan
34
Q

What are examples of France exerting soft power

A
  • extensive diplomatic reach
  • rich cultural offering - 1st in soft power 30
  • global media & film industry
  • strong international statemanship of President Macron
35
Q

What are examples of Japan exerting soft power

A
  • state monitored broadcasting introduced in 1939 & regular in 1950
  • core value of the elderly & resilience ppropaganda
  • 80% of people follow shinto rituals
  • TNCs like toyota & panasonic
36
Q

What are examples of the UK exerting soft power

A
  • top unis - 2nd largest n. of international students
  • british art, film, music & sport continue to hold enormous global appeal
  • e.g PL & Harry Potter
37
Q

What are examples of the USA exerting soft power

A
  • TNCS like apple, walmart & ford motot
  • media like Facebook
  • values such as individualism, equality, respect & international peace
38
Q

What was Russia’s soft 30 rankings in 2016 & 2019

A
  • 2019 - 30th
  • 2016 - 27th
39
Q

What was Brazil’s soft 30 rankings in 2016 & 2019

A
  • 2019 - 26th
  • 2016 - 24th
40
Q

What was China’s soft 30 rankings in 2016 & 2019

A
  • 2019 - 27th
  • 2016 - 28th
41
Q

What are the human charcteristics from which France’s geopolitical power stems from

A
  • rich history of cultural, political & economic influence
  • strong & diverse economy
  • Alliance Francais - promotes French culture & lanuage globally
42
Q

What are the human charcteristics from which Russia’s geopolitical power stems from

A
  • strong military power
  • advanced weaponry
  • technologically advanced
43
Q

What are the human charcteristics from which Brazil’s geopolitical power stems from

A
  • 123 million catholics
  • representative democracy
43
Q

What are the human charcteristics from which China’s geopolitical power stems from

A
  • large population & skilled workforce
  • rapid economic growth & technological advancements - 10% a year
44
Q

What are the physical charcteristics from which Russia’s geopolitical power stems from

A
  • energy superpower - worlds largest natural gas reserves
  • 2nd largest coal reserves
  • 8th largest oil shale reserves in Europe
45
Q

What are the physical characteristics from which Brazil’s geopolitical power stems from

A
  • Brazil contains most of the amazon river basin, & extensive rainforest
46
Q

What are the physical charcteristics from which China’s geopolitical power stems from

A
  • hydroelectric power from Yangtze river
  • large territory has many borers
  • vast coal reserves - 143.2 billion
47
Q

What characteristics have helped place the China as 27th in 2019

A
  • rising economic power
  • 8th in education - has led global edutech investment since 2015, facilitating 400 million students
  • cultural dominance
48
Q

What characteristics have helped place the Brazil 26th in 2019

A
  • agroculture & commodity powerhouse & supplies soybeans coffee & sugar locally
  • unemployment was 9.46%
  • 214 million population, prodominantly in primary employment
49
Q

What characteristics have helped place Russia as 30th in 2019

A
  • 2018 world cup
  • one of the largest global diplomatic networks
  • global audience do not perceive them as a trustworthy force
  • continued disinformation campaign across the west & the middle east
50
Q

What are examples of Brazil exerting soft power

A
  • leveraged its cultural capital & indigenous heritage through the José Bonifácio Institute and exported Brazilian culture abroad
  • Nationwide protests against spending freezes and cuts to higher education emphasise postive initiatives for change
50
Q

What are examples of Russia exerting soft power

A
  • 50% of TV & media is stateowned
  • The Russian Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) presidency programme for 2012-2013 —> promote trade, ecology, cross-border cooperation, people-to-people contacts and protection of children’s rights,
  • exporting Russian traditions of inter-ethic and inter-religious tolerance and multiculturalism
  • facilitation of visa regimes
  • The Ukrainian crisis, however, has undermined Russia’s soft power efforts in Europe and other regions
51
Q

What are examples of China exerting soft power

A
  • cultural juggernaut
  • media influence - state owned media outlets to dessimate narratives & shape public opinion
  • sports tourismm - 2nd highest n. of olympic medals in 2016
52
Q

What are examples of Russia exerting hard power

A
  • 1 million active personnel of soldiers
  • maintains strong relations with Belarus, India China NK & South Africa
  • $84 billion military budget
53
Q

What are examples of China exerting hard power

A
  • 2nd largst military budget
  • supports Autoritarian regimes e.g Myanmar
54
Q

What are examples of Brazil exerting hard power

A
  • active military personnel of 360,000
  • G4 member - nations have formed a coalition to advocate for reforms in the United Nations Security Council & strive forpermanent seatson the council