What is world systems theory? (3 aspects)
1. Single capitalist system 2. territorial division of labour in 3 parts- core, periphery and semi-periphery 3. World system is dynamic
How are global commodity chains linked to world systems theory?
- interested in connections across borders - How commodities are made in the periphery for consumption in the core - Concerns about social/ spatial inequalities, social division of labour
What are the two types of supply chains?
1. Producer driven chains 2. Buyer driven chains
What is a producer driven chain?
- Manufacturers are the most powerful player in driving the chain - Vertically intergrated, centralised - design and innovation pushes industry further -e.g. GM crops, cars, computers
What is a buyer driven supply chain?
- Firms at the consumption end drive supply chain- i.e. retailers, marketing - increased in number in the 1960s- helped by better communication, transport, export oriented growth - brand driven- identiry or image matter a lot - profit from economies of scale - e.g. Apple, Walmart
How have global commodity chains politicised consumption?
•Emphasis is placed on production and the economic consequences of globalization.
•GCCs have provided a platform through which to challenge firms to change workplace practices.
•Often includes pressure on WTO/IMF to change means of regulating trade
•Campaigns might seek to challenge through:
1. Raising consumer awareness
2. Influencing purchasing decisions.
Talk about Nike?
- brand much stronger than the durability of its product.
- Fetishistic rhetoric of the brand (power, emotion, innovation) translate into an effect of the brand.
- Athletes with attitude- i.e. Michael Jordan, Lady Leshur
- Complex system of contracting enables Nike to shift its production around easily.
- 500,000 employees (mostly in Asia) where labour costs are low and limits on unionization
What happens to power and players as you move up the supply chain?
Players decrease but power increases
Most of the money is at the top of the supply chain
What are the origins of consumer campaigns?
-originally to revial human righrs abuses
- Protect workers who are paid less than a fair wage
- Through underming a brands image- brands who are dependent on their image are vulnerable
What's Jonah Peretti's Nike campaign?
personalised trainers to say Sweatshop and published his emails responses from Nike
How have consumer campaigns work?
- The soveriegnty of knowledge is stressed- handing out leaflets
- Attempts to create a community of consumers
- targeted retailers rather than producers
What is systems of provision?
- focus on certain elements of the chain
- focusses on the commodity and thet systems and spatialities which shape them
- Looks at the symbolic meaning, discources and material uses
- Looks at how things are embedded in a social life
Origins of the used clothes trade?
- 17th/18th century
- second hand trade begins and accelerates post WW2 through export to Africa
- Some charity but sale of over stock
- over 50% donations go to textile recycling industry
What is the second hand clothes industry like in Zambia?
- Only the best second hand clothes are sold in the west
- different exchange and use value given to clothes in Zambia
- meaning of the clothes changes
- Called Salaula
- Most people (except the richest) wear it
- Tailors refashion some items- so fon't lose out
- positive- abour circulation and bricolage not emulating
What are commodity circuits?
•Views commodity chain approach as too unidirectional
•Each individual node (and their agents) can be connected and contingent upon one another
•Commodities are seen as ‘moments’ that are contingent
•Allows to study commodity linked practices at all nodes in the circuit
Commodity circuit diagram?
What are the elements of the food systems?
- food production
- distrubution and aggregation
- food processing
-markets and purchasing
- preparation and consumption
- resource and waster recovery
- all interconnected
Talk about Lake Victoria in Kenya
- culture around lake victoria built around fishing
- problem of overfishing so the price went up
- local people had to stop fishin and were deprived of their culture
- the cultural aspects often overlooked
How many people rely on international imports to fulfil their demands for agricultural goods?
- Currently 950 million people rely on international imports to fulfil their demand for agricultural goods.
- 2050 this could increase to 5.2billion people
(Fader et al, 2013)
Why be food self sufficient?
- Less reliant on other states- less at risk of international price hikes (2007/8 food crisis), less dependent on the political will of other states (US grain embargo to USSR in 1980)
- Allows wealthy nations to shift the consequences of their unsustainable lifestyles elsewhere
Why not be food self-sufficient?
- Causes market inefficiences- reduced amount of food, increased cost of production, increased environmental strain
- Buying local food is not always better for the environment- UK consumers buying spanish lettuce in winter is better for the environment (Edward-Jones, 2010)
- 66 countries don't have a suitable environment to be food self sufficient
- A nation being food self sufficient doesn't mean that everyone has access to food- i.e. India's green revolution