Support and transport in plants Flashcards Preview

Gd 10 - Life Sciences 2017 > Support and transport in plants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Support and transport in plants Deck (29):
1

Seed plants are divided into two main groups

  • gymnosperms
  • angiosperms

2

gymnosperms

  • Non-flowering seed plants
  • e.g. pine trees, yellowwood trees and cycads

3

angiosperms

  • flowering plants
  • e.g. sunflowers, corn and orange trees

4

Angiosperms are divided into two main groups

  • dicotyledons (dicots)
  • monocotyledons (monocots)

5

Main support tissues in plants

  • collenchyma
  • sclerenchyma
  • xylem

6

Main transport tissues in plants

  • xylem
  • phloem

7

Xylem tissue is made up of...

  • xylem vessels
  • xylem tracheids
  • xylem sclerenchyma fibres
  • xylem parenchyma

8

Xylem vessel features...

  • primary cell wall made of cellulose
  • dead cells, no cytoplasm
  • long, cylindrical tubes
  • ends of tubes (cross walls) have perforated plates
  • thick secondary walls of lignin
  • lignin either annular, spiral, scalariform or pitted

9

Xylem tracheid features...

  • similar to tracheids
  • cell ends tapered (pointed)
  • narrow diameter

10

Xylem suited for support because...

  • thick secondary walls of lignin
  • round shape in cross section
  • strong to resist shearing forces (forces acting at different angles to the cell)

11

Xylem suited for transport because...

  • cross walls perforated
  • cells are dead and hollow
  • pits and gaps in thickening allow water to move sideways between cells

12

Xylem transports...

  • water
  • dissolved mineral salts

13

Phloem transports...

  • manufactured organic foods
  • e.g. glucose and sucrose

14

Phloem tissue is made up of...

  • sieve tubes
  • companion cells
  • phloem schlerenchyma fibres
  • phloem parenchyma

15

Sieve tube features...

  • Primary cell wall of cellulose
  • no secondary thickening
  • living cells with no nucleus or cytoplasm
  • long, tube like
  • sieve plates at ends with holes
  • Large vacuoles (cell body) with cytoplasmic threads

16

Companion cell features...

  • Living cells
  • dense cytoplasm with a nucleus
  • found next to sieve tubes to manage their metabolism

17

Functions of the root system in plants...

  • anchorage
  • support
  • storage
  • nutrient uptake
  • transport
  • reproduction

18

First root in angiosperms?

  • Primary embryonic root
  • called the radicle

19

First shoot in angiosperms?

  • Embryonic shoot
  • called the plumule

20

Describe dicot roots

  • tap root system
  • radicle develops into a tap root
  • lateral roots branch outwards from this

21

Describe monocot roots

  • Fibrous or adventitious
  • radicle dies
  • replaced with secondary roots from stem
  • form a shallower fibrous root system

22

Region of root where xylem and phloem are found...

  • the stele

23

Support tissues in a root...

  • collenchyma
  • schlerenchyma
  • xylem

24

Transport tissues in a root...

  • Xylem
  • Phloem

25

Describe the outermost layer of a root...

  • Epidermis tissue
  • No cuticle to be able to absorb water
  • Root hairs may be present to increase surface area

26

The two main root regions of a dicot (cross section)

  • Cortex (outer)
  • Stele (inner)

27

Describe the cortex in a dicot...

From outside inwards:

  • (Epidermis)
  • Exodermis
  • central cortex
  • endodermis (innermost layer)

28

Describe the endodermis...

  • Single layer of parenchyma cells
  • Wall thickening called Casparian band (helps control water movement)

29

Describe the stele...

  • Pericycle tissue - produces secondary roots
  • Conducting tissue - xylem and phloem