Surg 102--Chapters 8 & 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Surg 102--Chapters 8 & 9 Deck (54):
1

The presence of three or more physical congenital abnormalities is referred to as _____.

VACTERL

2

What does VACTERL stand for?

-Vertebral
-Anal
-Cardiac
-Tracheoesophageal
-Esophageal
-Renal
-Limb defect

3

Another acronym used to describe multiple congenital defects is _____.

CHARGE

4

What does CHARGE stand for?

-Coloboma (split iris)
-Hearing
-Atresia
-Retardation
-Genitourinary
-Esophageal

5

Occur in infants and children but with minimal frequency when compared with occurrence rates for adults.

malignant tumors

6

What is the leading cause of death in children?

accidental injury (trauma)

7

Not compatible with life.

embryo

8

In utero after 3 months of gestation.

fetus

9

-Gestational age more than 24 weeks
-Birth-weight more than 500g
-Capable of sustaining life outside uterus

potentially viable

10

-Gestational age less than 37 weeks
-Birth-weight 2500g or less

true preterm

11

-Gestational age less than 38 weeks
-Birth-weight more than 2500g

large preterm

12

-Gestational age 38-40 weeks
-birth-weight greater than 2500g

term neonate

13

-Gestational age extended by more than 8 weeks

postterm

14

-First 28 days of extra-uterine life.

neonatal period

15

-28 days to 18 months

infant

16

-18 - 30 months

toddler

17

-2.5 - 5 years

preschool age

18

-6 - 12 years

school age

19

-13 - 18 years

adolescent

20

When is hypotension apparent in an infant?

not until 50% of the circulating volume is lost

21

Neonate blood volume.

75 - 80 mL/kg

22

6 weeks - 2 years blood volume.

75 mL/kg

23

2 years - puberty

72 mL/kg

24

During repair of am esophageal atresia, what type of tubes used during gastrostomy?

gastrostomy tube (percutaneous endoscopic (PEG) tube)

25

What is the most common cause for an abdominal surgical procedure in children ages 5 to 10?

appendectomy

26

What is cryptorchidism?

undescended testicles

27

What procedures can be used to repair cryptorchidism?

two-stage Torek operation

28

Also known as club foot, the most common of the talipes deformities.

talipes varus

29

Cleft lip "rule of 10s".

10 weeks of age, 10 g of hemoglobin, 10 lbs of body weight.

30

Congenital anomaly characterized by fusion of two or more fingers or toes.

syndactly

31

Occurs when the passages between the ventricles are blocked and are dilated by accumulated spinal fluid.

hydrocephalus

32

Congenital malformation of the chest wall, characterized by a pronounced funnel-shaped concave depression over the lower end of the sternum beginning at the angle of Lewis and extending to the xyphoid.

pectus excavatum

33

An opening in the septum between the right and left atria that allows oxygenated blood to shunt from left to right and return to the lungs.

atrial septal defect

34

How is an atrial septal defect closed?

sutures or a patch graft

35

-Usually located in the membranous portion of the septum between the right and left ventricles
-Most common congenital heart anomaly
-Alternation between cyanosis and acyanosis

ventricular septal defect

36

Combination of four defects:
-VSD (large)
-stenosis of pulmonary valve
-hypertrophy of the right ventricle
-dextroposition of the aorta to the right

tetralogy of Fallot

37

The aorta and pulmonary artery are anatomically switched. Useful in infants with VSD or a large PDA.

Jantene procedure (atrial switch)

38

A tricuspid valve between the right atrium and ventricle prevents normal blood flow through the chambers of the heart.

tricuspid atresia

39

What procedure is used to correct a tricuspid atresia?

Fontan procedure

40

A balloon catheter is advanced into the right atrium, through the foramen ovale, and into the left atrium.

Rashkind procedure

41

Most common cause of death in the first week of life.

hypoplastic left heart syndrome

42

The left ventricle is severely underdeveloped.

hypoplastic left heart syndrome

43

Life expectancy has increased with advancements in the study of disease process, prevention and treatment.

True

44

A decrease in _____ production can increase the risk of osteoporosis.

estrogen

45

A decrease in _____ activity decreases the basal metabolic rate and increases weight gain.

thyroid

46

A decrease in the efficiency of _____ production decreases the efficiency of glucose metabolism.

insulin

47

A decrease in _____ production may decrease the libido in men.

testosterone

48

More than _____ of all geriatric patients have more than one condition capable of causing death.

73%

49

Between _____ and _____ of geriatric patients experience depression and an alteration in self-image.

10-65%

50

Effects of psychosocial isolation in older adults?

multisystem decline

51

A chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the fixation or fusion of a vertebral joint, often cause age-related postures

ankylosing spondylosis

52

multiple vaginal births can cause

uterine and bladder prolapse

53

Hypothermia, at what temp is elderly at risk?

when temp falls below 96.8

54

during anesthesia is induction sometimes prolonged and if so why?

COPD such as emphysema