Flashcards in Surg 102--Chapters 8 & 9 Deck (54):
The presence of three or more physical congenital abnormalities is referred to as _____.
What does VACTERL stand for?
Another acronym used to describe multiple congenital defects is _____.
What does CHARGE stand for?
-Coloboma (split iris)
Occur in infants and children but with minimal frequency when compared with occurrence rates for adults.
What is the leading cause of death in children?
accidental injury (trauma)
Not compatible with life.
In utero after 3 months of gestation.
-Gestational age more than 24 weeks
-Birth-weight more than 500g
-Capable of sustaining life outside uterus
-Gestational age less than 37 weeks
-Birth-weight 2500g or less
-Gestational age less than 38 weeks
-Birth-weight more than 2500g
-Gestational age 38-40 weeks
-birth-weight greater than 2500g
-Gestational age extended by more than 8 weeks
-First 28 days of extra-uterine life.
-28 days to 18 months
-18 - 30 months
-2.5 - 5 years
-6 - 12 years
-13 - 18 years
When is hypotension apparent in an infant?
not until 50% of the circulating volume is lost
Neonate blood volume.
75 - 80 mL/kg
6 weeks - 2 years blood volume.
2 years - puberty
During repair of am esophageal atresia, what type of tubes used during gastrostomy?
gastrostomy tube (percutaneous endoscopic (PEG) tube)
What is the most common cause for an abdominal surgical procedure in children ages 5 to 10?
What is cryptorchidism?
What procedures can be used to repair cryptorchidism?
two-stage Torek operation
Also known as club foot, the most common of the talipes deformities.
Cleft lip "rule of 10s".
10 weeks of age, 10 g of hemoglobin, 10 lbs of body weight.
Congenital anomaly characterized by fusion of two or more fingers or toes.
Occurs when the passages between the ventricles are blocked and are dilated by accumulated spinal fluid.
Congenital malformation of the chest wall, characterized by a pronounced funnel-shaped concave depression over the lower end of the sternum beginning at the angle of Lewis and extending to the xyphoid.
An opening in the septum between the right and left atria that allows oxygenated blood to shunt from left to right and return to the lungs.
atrial septal defect
How is an atrial septal defect closed?
sutures or a patch graft
-Usually located in the membranous portion of the septum between the right and left ventricles
-Most common congenital heart anomaly
-Alternation between cyanosis and acyanosis
ventricular septal defect
Combination of four defects:
-stenosis of pulmonary valve
-hypertrophy of the right ventricle
-dextroposition of the aorta to the right
tetralogy of Fallot
The aorta and pulmonary artery are anatomically switched. Useful in infants with VSD or a large PDA.
Jantene procedure (atrial switch)
A tricuspid valve between the right atrium and ventricle prevents normal blood flow through the chambers of the heart.
What procedure is used to correct a tricuspid atresia?
A balloon catheter is advanced into the right atrium, through the foramen ovale, and into the left atrium.
Most common cause of death in the first week of life.
hypoplastic left heart syndrome
The left ventricle is severely underdeveloped.
hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Life expectancy has increased with advancements in the study of disease process, prevention and treatment.
A decrease in _____ production can increase the risk of osteoporosis.
A decrease in _____ activity decreases the basal metabolic rate and increases weight gain.
A decrease in the efficiency of _____ production decreases the efficiency of glucose metabolism.
A decrease in _____ production may decrease the libido in men.
More than _____ of all geriatric patients have more than one condition capable of causing death.
Between _____ and _____ of geriatric patients experience depression and an alteration in self-image.
Effects of psychosocial isolation in older adults?
A chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the fixation or fusion of a vertebral joint, often cause age-related postures
multiple vaginal births can cause
uterine and bladder prolapse
Hypothermia, at what temp is elderly at risk?
when temp falls below 96.8