Flashcards in Symposium 1: Stroke Deck (17):
Stroke is a clinical diagnosis based on four things. What are they?
- Sudden onset
- Focal neurological deficit of presumed vascular origin
- Symptoms lasting more than 24 hours or leading to death
- Symptoms lasting less than 24 hours classified as a Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)
What percentage of strokes are due to infarction?
What percentage of strokes are due to haemorrhage?
What is the pathophysiology of an acute ischaemic stroke?
- Initial reduction in cerebral blood flow
- Alterations in cellular chemistry caused by the ischaemia
- Cellular necrosis
What is haematocrit?
The viscosity of blood (mainly).
What does CPP stand for?
Cerebral perfusion pressure
What does CVR stand for?
Cerebral vascular resistance
What does CBV stand for?
Cerebral blood volume
What is the penumbra?
The term generally used to define ischemic but still viable cerebral tissue.
What is the oligemia?
Another term for hypovolaemia.
What is the sole source of energy for the brain?
What is the mean oxygen extraction fraction of the brain?
What are the causes of ischaemic stroke?
- large arteries (mainly extra-cranial)
- small arteries (mainly intra-cranial)
- from the heart (cardiogenic embolism)
- from proximal arteries (artery to artery embolism)
What is the most common cause of cardiogenic embolism?
How does one interpret a forest plot?
If the odds ratio is 1 there is no difference between giving the intervention and placebo. If it is less then one there is a positive difference.
Why can you not diagnose stroke using a CT scan?
Whilst haemmorhagic strokes will always show on scans, only 50% of ischaemic strokes will.