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Flashcards in Syncope Deck (15):
1

What is a general definition of syncope?

- sudden loss of consciousness and postural tone due to insufficient blood supply to the brain

2

What are some causes of syncope?

Vasovagal:

Cardiac: arrhythmias, organic heart disease, aortic stenosis, myocardial ischaemia

3

What is a prodrome?

- what the patient noticed immediately prior to the event

4

What is a colateral history?

A witness' account of the event useful if the patient cannot recall or was not conscious for a part/all of the occurence

5

What are some important elements of the cardinal features to ask about syncope?

- Prodrome
- Quality
- Time Course
- Precipitating Factors
- Relieving Factors
- Associated Features
- Period after the event
- Past History
- Colateral History

6

How would you differentiate between a vasovagal syncope and a cardiac syncope based on prodrome?

Vasovagal: feeling light-headed, wobbly legs, vision going dim/blurry, noises sounding distant; may remember the beginning of the collapse

Cardiac: usually not present/lack of prodrome

7

How would you differentiate between a vasovagal syncope and a cardiac syncope based on Quality?

Vasovagal & Cardiac: Loss of postural tone; convulsive movements can occur although usually only a few jerks

8

How would you differentiate between a vasovagal syncope and a cardiac syncope based on Time Course?

Vasovagal & Cardiac: usually less than 30 seconds of unconsciousness

9

How would you differentiate between a vasovagal syncope and a cardiac syncope based on Context?

Vasovagal: usually doesn't occur when sitting or lying

Cardiac: Can occur at any time

10

How would you differentiate between a vasovagal syncope and a cardiac syncope based on Precipitating factors?

Vasovagal: fasting, pain, emotional events, prolonged standing, heat etc.

Cardiac: Not usually a clear precipitating factor (may be pathological)

11

How would you differentiate between a vasovagal syncope and a cardiac syncope based on Associated features?

Vasovagal & Cardiac: Sweaty, pallor, no frothing at the mouth, incontinence of urine may occur although this is not common

12

How would you differentiate between a vasovagal syncope and a cardiac syncope based on Period after the event?

Vasovagal & Cardiac:
- rapid recovery
- rarely confused afterwards
- injury may have occured (if protective relfexes are preserved, they could be faking)

13

How would you differentiate between a vasovagal syncope and a cardiac syncope based on past history?

Vasovagal: may have encountered syncopal evnts before

Cardiac: cardiac disease; risk factors

14

How would a seizure differ from syncopal events?

- common during seizure for incontinence of urine to occur
- recovery is not always fast after a seizure and confusion may occur immediately after the event

15

What is the genera layout for a full medical history?

1. Intoduction & Permission
2. Name (What do you prefer to be called?), Age, Occupaton
3. Opening Question
4. Cardinal Features (3&4 are the history of presenting complaint)
5. PMHx
6. Medications
7. Allergies
8. FHx
9. Social Hx