Syndromes Every Geneticist Should Know (ACMG) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Syndromes Every Geneticist Should Know (ACMG) Deck (63):
1

22q11 deletion (DiGeorge, Velocardiofacial syn, Schprintzen syn) CARDIO SYSTEM

genes: UFDIL, TBX1

locus: 22q11.2

AD; 93% de novo

features: CHD, immune dysfunction, palate abnormalities, feeding problems, DD, learning problems, hypocalcemia, renal anomalies, psychiatric disorders, medial deviation of the internal carotids

molecular tests: FISH

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Alagille Syndrome CARDIO SYSTEM

genes: JAG1, NOTCH2 loci: 20p12, 1p13-p11

AD; 50-70% de novo

features: bile duct paucity (scarcity) on liver biopsy + any three of: cardiac defects, cholestasis, skeletal abnormalities (butterfly vertebrae), eye, or characteristic facial features (prominent forehead, deep-set eyes with moderate hypertelorism, pointed chin, saddle or straight nose with a bulbous tip). DD, growth failure

Molecular tests: JAG1 sequencing, FISH

 

 

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Brugada Syndrome CARDIO SYSTEM

gene: SCN5A loci: 3p21

- Inheritance: AD

clinical features:

- syncope or nocturnal agonal respiration (gasping while asleep),

- ST-segment abnormalities on the ECG

- Manifests during adulthood,

- mean age of sudden death: 40 years

- May present as SIDS or sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome

- Molecular tests: SCN5A seq (20-25%)

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Cardio-Facio-Cutaneous Syndrome CARDIO SYSTEM

- genes: BRAF, MEK1, MEK2, KRAS loci: 7q34, 15q22.31, 19p13.3, 12p12.1

- Inheritance: AD; majority de novo

- features: cardiac abnormalities, high forehead with bitemporal narrowing, posteriorly rotated ears with thick helices, hypertelorism with down slanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds and ptosis, depressed nasal bridge with anteverted nares (little pig noses per Bess), highly arched palate, cupids bow lips, cutaneous abnormalities (xerosis, hyperkeratosis, ichthyosis, eczema, ulerythema, ophyrogenes), mild-moderate ID

- Molecular test: gene seq

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Costello Syndrome CARDIO SYSTEM

gene: HRAS loci: 11p15.5 AD; majority de novo features: feeding issues, DD, ID, coarse facial features, loose, soft skin, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, pulmonary stenosis, arrhythmia, rhabdomyosarcoma; molecular tests: gene seq

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Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia CARDIO SYSTEM

genes: ACVRL1, ENG, SMAD4 loci: 12q11-q14, 9q34.1 AD features: nosebleeds (epistaxis), mucocutaneous telangiectases (lips, oral cavity, fingers, and nose), visceral AV malformation (pulmonary, cerebral, hepatic, spinal, GI) molecular test: seq and del/dup analysis

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Holt-Oram Syndrome

gene: TBX5

loci: 12q24.1

AD; 85% de novo

features: malformation of carpal bone(s) and radial and/or thenar bones (left more severe than right). CHD, must often have multiple ASD or VSD, arrhythmia (even if no CHD)

molecular test: TBX5 sequencing (>70%) rarely del/dup

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Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (LEOPARD) CARDIO SYSTEM

genes: PTPN11, RAF1 loci: 12q24, 3p25 AD features: lentigines (liver spots), eletrocardiographic conduction abn, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abn of the genitalia, retardation of growth, deafness (sensorineural). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in majority. low-set ears. tests: sequencing

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Noonan syndrome CARDIO SYSTEM

genes: PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS, RAF1, NRAS, CBL, SHOC2, BRAF loci: 12q24.1, 2p22-21, 12p12.1, 3p25, 1p13.2, 11q23.3, 10q25, 7q35 AD features: facial features, short stature, feeding problems, pulmonary valve stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cryptorchidism, renal malformation, lymphedema, bleeding disorders, myeloproliferative disorder, inc. risk of leukemia and learning disabilites tests: sequencing

"Male turner syndrome" - but affects males and females

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Williams Syndrome

gene: ELN, contiguous gene del syndrome loci: 7q11.23 AD; majority de novo features: CV any artery may be narrowed, supravalvar aortic stenosis, facial features (broad brow, bi-temporal narowness, periorbital fullness, stellate/lacy iris pattern, strabismus, short nose, full nasal tip, malar hypoplasia, long philtrum, full ips, wide mouth, malocclusion, small jaw, prominent earlobes), hoarse voice, hernia, rectal prolapse, joint limitation or laxity, ID, friendly, anxiety, ADD, hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroid, FTT infancy tests: FISH & seq

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Ataxia-Telangiectasia CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE DISORDER

 

- Gene: ATM
- Cytogenetic locus: 11q22.3

-Chromosomal breakage syndrome

- Inheritance: Autosomal recessive (carriers may be at risk for cancer)

- Clinical Features: Progressive cerebellar ataxia (onset age 1-4 years), oculomotor apraxia, conjunctival telangiectasia, immunodef, choreoathetosis, ionizing radiation sensitivity, risk of cancer (lymphoma and leukemia)

- Molecular tests: ATM sequencing (>95%). Amish founder mutation

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Features: CHD, immune dysfunction, palate abnormalities, feeding problems, DD, learning problems, hypocalcemia, renal anomalies, psychiatric disorders, medial deviation of the internal carotids

 

22q11 deletion (DiGeorge, Velocardiofacial syn, Schprintzen syn) CARDIO SYSTEM

Mnemonic: CATCH-22

C: Cardiac defects

A: Abnormal facies

T: Thymic aplasia

C: Cleft palate

H: Hypocalecemia

22: on chromosome 22q11.2

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features: bile duct paucity on liver biopsy + any three of: cardiac defects, cholestasis, skeletal abnormalities (butterfly vertebrae), eye, or characteristic facial features (prominent forehead, deep-set eyes with moderate hypertelorism, pointed chin, saddle or straight nose with a bulbous tip). DD, growth failure 

Alagille Syndrome CARDIO SYSTEM

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- Clinical features: syncope or nocturnal agonal respiration, ST-segment abnormalities on the ECG

- Manifests during adulthood, mean age of sudden death: 40 years

- May present as SIDS or sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome 

Brugada Syndrome CARDIO SYSTEM

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features: cardiac abnormalities, high forehead with bi-temporal constriction, posteriorly rotated hears with thick helices, hypertelorism with down slanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds and ptosis, depressed nasal bridge with anteverted nares, highly arched palate, cupids bow lips, cutaneous abnormalities (xerosis, hyperkeratosis, ichthyosis, eczema, ulerythema, ophyrogenes), mild-moderate ID 

 

Cardio-Facio-Cutaneous Syndrome CARDIO SYSTEM

Heart

Face

Skin/Hair

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features: feeding issues, DD, ID, coarse facial features, loose, soft skin, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, pulmonary stenosis, arrhythmia 

Costello Syndrome CARDIO SYSTEM

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features: nosebleeds, mucocutaneous telangiectases (lips, oral cavity, fingers & nose), visceral AV malformation (pulmonary, cerebral, hepatic, spinal, GI) 

Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia CARDIO SYSTEM

 

Picture = mucocutaneous telangiectases

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features: malformation of carpal bone(s) and radial and/or thenar bones (left more severe than right). CHD, most often have multiple ASD or VSD, arrhythmia (even if no CHD)

Holt-Oram Syndrome

Think: "HOLE't-Oram"

"Holes" (aka; ASDs, VSDs)

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features: lentigines, eletrocardiographic conduction abn, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abn of the genitalia, retardation of growth, deafness (sensorineural). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in majority. low-set ears. 

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (LEOPARD) CARDIO SYSTEM

LEOPARD

L: Lentigines

E: Eletrocardiographic conduction abnormalities

O: Ocular hypertelorism

P: Pulmonary stenosis

A: Abnormalities of the genitalia

R: Retardation of growth

D: sensorineural Deafness

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features: facial features, short stature, feeding problems, pulmonary valve stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cryptorchidism, renal malformation, lymphedema, bleeding disorders, myeloproliferative disorder, inc. risk of leukemia and learning disabilites 

Noonan syndrome CARDIO SYSTEM

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features: CV any artery may be narrowed, supravalvar aortic stenosis, facial features (broad brow, bi-temporal narowness, periorbital fullness, stellate/lacy iris pattern, strabismus, short nose, full nasal tip, malar hypoplasia, long philtrum, full ips, wide mouth, malocclusion, small jaw, prominent earlobes), hoarse voice, hernia, rectal prolapse, joint limitation or laxity, ID, friendly, anxiety, ADD, hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroid, FTT infancy 

Williams Syndrome

W: Well developed verbal skills

I: Increased calcium

L: eLfin facies

L: eLastin gene microdeletion

I: Increased sensitivity to vitamin D

A: Aortic stenosis

M: Mental retardation

S: Stranger friendliness

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- Clinical Features: Progressive cerebellar ataxia (onset age 1-4 yeasr), oculomotor apraxia, conjunctival telangiectasia, immunodef, choreoathetosis, ionizing radiation sensitivity, risk of cancer (lymphoma and leukemia)

 

Ataxia-Telangiectasia CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE DISORDER

 

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Bloom Syndrome CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE DISORDERS

Gene: BLM

Locus: 15q26.1

Inheritance: Autosomal recessive (1/100 carrier frequency in AJ population)

Clinical Features and Diagnostic Criteria: IUGR, hyper and hypopigmentation, butterfly distribution sun sensitive telangiectasia, microcephaly, high pitched voice, normal intelligence, immunodeficiency, azoospermia, POF, increased risk of cancer (colon most common, but wide distribution of type and site)

Molecular Tests: BLM 2881 del6ins7 (97% mutant allele in AJ)

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Clinical Features and Diagnostic Criteria: IUGR, hyper and hypopigmentation, butterfly distribution sun sensitive telangiectasia, microcephaly, high pitched voice, normal intelligence, immunodeficiency, azoospermia, POF, increased risk of cancer (colon most common, but wide distribution of type and site)

 

Bloom Syndrome CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE DISORDERS

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Fanconi Anemia: CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE DISORDERS

- Responsible genes: 13 different fanconi anemia genes including BRCA2, PALB2, BRIP1, Others that start with "FANC"

- Inheritance: AR

- Clinical features and diagnostic criteria: short stature; abnormal pigmentation; radial, GU, ear, heart, GI, or CNS malformation; hearing loss, hypogonadism, developmental delay (DD).  Progressive bone marrow failure, aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, AML, solid tumor of head, neck, esophagus, cervix, vulva, or liver at unusually young age

- Molecular tests: Seq and del/dup analysis

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- Clinical features and diagnostic criteria: short stature; abnormal pibmentation; radial, GU, ear, heart, GI, or CNS malformation; hearing loss, hypogonadism, developmental delay (DD).  Progressive bone marrow failure, aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, AML, solid tumor of head, neck, esophagus, cervix, vulva, or liver at unusually young age

 

Fanconi Anemia: CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE DISORDERS

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Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly (Beals Syndrome) CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDER

Gene: FBN2

Loci: 5q23-q31

Inheritance: AD

Clinical features and diagnositic criteria: Marfanoid appearance, long slender fingers and toes, crumpled ears, major joint contracture, muscle hypoplasia, kyphosis/scoliosis, severe/lethal: aortic dilation, ASD, VSD, IAA, duodenal or esophageal atresia, malrotation

Molecular Test: FBN2 sequencing (75%)

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Clinical features and diagnositic criteria: Marfanoid appearance, long slender fingers and toes, crumpled ears, major joint contracture, muscle hypoplasia, kyphosis/scoliosis, severe/lethal: aortic dilation, ASD, VSD, IAA, duodenal or esophageal atresia, malrotation

Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly (Beals Syndrome) CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDER

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Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Classic Type (1 and 2)

CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS

  • Genes: COL5A1 and COL5A2
  • Inheritance: Autosomal Dominant
  • Clinical features and diagnostic criteria: skin hyperextensibility, widened atrophic scars, joint hypermobility, smooth velvety skin, molluscoid pseudotumors (heaped up scar-like lesions over pressure points), subcutaneous spheroids (cyst-like lesions, feel like grains of rice, over bony prominences of legs and arms), joint sprains/dislocations/subluxations, hypotonia, easy bruising, hernia, chronic pain, aortic root dilation
  • Molecular Tests: COL5A1 "null" allele testing on cultured fibroblasts (30%), COL5A1 and COL5A2 sequencing (50%)

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Clinical features and diagnostic criteria: skin hyperextensibility, widened atrophic scars, joint hypermobility, smooth velvety skin, molluscoid pseudotumors (heaped up scar-like lesions over pressure points), subcutaneous spheroids (cyst-like lesions, feel like grains of rice, over bony prominences of legs and arms), joint sprains/dislocations/subluxations, hypotonia, easy bruising, hernia, chronic pain, aortic root dilation

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Classic Type (1 and 2)

CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS

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Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility type (Type III)

Gene: TNXB

Locus: 6p21.3

Inheritance: AD

Clinical Features and Diagnostic Critera: Joint hypermobility, soft or velvety skin with normal or slightly increased elasticity, ABSENCE of skin or soft tissue fragility, recurrent joint dislocation/subluxation(partial dislocation or slight misalignment of the vertebrae), chronic joint or limb pain, easy bruising, high narrow palate, dental crowding, and low bone density.  Reported instances of aortic root dilation and mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

Molecular tests: not done

Disease Mechanism: Abnormal dermal elastic fibers

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EDS-type IV

(Connective tissue disorder)

COL3A1

Autosomal dominant

Most severe EDS type

Phentoype: arterial rupture, uterine rupture during pregnancy, thin and/or translucent skin, easy bruising, thin lips and philtrum, small chin, thin nose, aged appearance of hands, minor joint hypermobility, tendon/muscle rupture, varicose veins, pneumothorax, CHD, clubfoot, shortened lifespan d/t rupture risks (40s-50s)

Testing: Gene sequencing

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Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

(Connective tissue disorder)

Genes: TGFBR1, SMAD3, TGFB2

Autosomal dominant

Phenotype: Vascular anomalies (cerebral, thoracic, abdominal arterial aneurysms, dissections), pectus deformity, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, arterial tortuosity

LDS type I - craniofacial manifestations (hypertelorism, bifid uvula, cleft palate, craniosynostosis) - accounts for ~75% of LDS

LDS type II - Velvety, translucent skin, easy bruising, atrophic scars, vascular rupture, more severe - accounts for ~25% of LDS

Testing: Gene sequencing + del/dup

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Clinical Features and Diagnostic Critera: Joint hypermobility, soft or velvety skin with normal or slightly increased elasticity, ABSENCE of skin or soft tissue fragility, recurrent joint dislocation/subluxation, chronic joint or limb pain, easy bruising, high narrow palate, dental crowding, and low bone density.  Reported instances of aortic root dilation and mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

 

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility type (Type III)

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Marfan Syndrome (CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDER)

Gene: FBN1

Locus: 15q21.1

Inheritance: AD

Clinical Features and Dx Criteria: Major involvement of 2 body systems and minor involvement of a 3rd.

Major Criteria: Cardiovascular - Dilation or dissection of the ascending aorta; Skeletal - Pectus carinatum or excavatum, reduced upper:lower segment or arm span: ht, scoliosis, pes planus, high palate, reduced elbow extension, protrusio acetabulae; Eye - ectopia lentis; Dura - lumbosacral dural ectasia; Family hx: pathogenic FBN1 mutation

Minor Criteria: Cardiovascular - MV, MR, dilation of main PA, mitral annulus calcification, dilation or dissection of the descending thoracic or abdominal aorta at age

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Stickler syndrome

(Connective tissue disorder)

Genes: COL2A1, COL11A1, COL11A2, COL9A1, COL9A2, COL9A3

Phenotype: Severe myopia, cataracts, retinal detachment, hearing loss, conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, midface hypoplasia, cleft palate, short stature due to spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, premature arthritis

Testing: gene sequencing and/or del/dup

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Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (HED)

Genes: EDA, EDAR, EDARADD

X-linked (95%), AD or AR (5%)

Phenotype: Peeling skin at birth, perioral hyperpigmentation, hypotrichosis (sparse hair), hypohidrosis or anhydrosis (little-to-no sweating), hypodontia (5-7 teeth), conical shaped teeth, XL carriers may show mosaic pattern of hypohidrosis and hypodontia

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Incontinentia Pigmenti

Gene: IKBKG

X-linked dominant (usually male lethal - fetuses miscarry)

Phenotype: Four stages of skin changes: erythema->blister->hyperpigmented streaks -> atrophic patches; hypo/andontia, small or malformed teeth, alopecia, woolly hair, nail ridging or pitting, retinal detachment, ID is rare, normal life expectancy

Testing: Southern blot for exon 4-10 deletion, skewed X inactivation in females

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Clinical Features and Dx Criteria: Major involvement of 2 body systems and minor involvement of a 3rd.

Major Criteria: Cardiovascular - Dilation or dissection of the ascending aorta; Skeletal - Pectus carinatum or excavatum, reduced upper: lower segment or arm span: ht, scoliosis, pes planus, high palate, reduced elbow extension, protrusio acetabulae; Eye - ectopia lentis; Dura - lumbosacral dural ectasia; Family hx: pathogenic FBN1 mutation

Minor Criteria: Cardiovascular - MV, MR, dilation of main PA, mitral annulus calcification, dilation or dissection of the descending thoracic or abdominal aorta at age

Marfan Syndrome (CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDER)

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Oculocutaneous Albinism

Genes: TYR (OCA1A, OCA1B), OCA2

Autosomal recessive

Phenotype: albinism, nystagmus, translucent iris, ocular abnormalities, vision problems, range of skin and eye pigmentation

Testing: TYR sequencing, OCA2 deletion testing

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X-Linked Adrenal Hypoplasa Congenita (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)

Gene: NROB1

Inheritance: X-linked

Features/Dx Criteria: Acute onset adrenal insufficiency (hyperkalemia, acidosis, hypoglycemia, shock), cryptorchidism (absence of 1-2 testes), delayed puberty.  Carrier females: may have adrenal insufficiency or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

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Arterial rupture, uterine rupture during pregnancy, thin and/or translucent skin, easy bruising, thin lips and philtrum, small chin, thin nose, aged appearance of hands, minor joint hypermobility, tendon/muscle rupture, varicose veins, pneumothorax, CHD, clubfoot, shortened lifespan d/t rupture risks (40s-50s)

Testing: Gene sequencing

EDS-type IV

(Connective tissue disorder)

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Vascular anomalies (cerebral, thoracic, abdominal arterial aneurysms, dissections), pectus deformity, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, arterial tortuosity

~75% craniofacial manifestations (hypertelorism, bifid uvula, cleft palate, craniosynostosis)

~25% Velvety, translucent skin, easy bruising, atrophic scars, vascular rupture, more severe

 

Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

(Connective tissue disorder)

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Severe myopia, cataracts, retinal detachment, hearing loss, conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, midface hypoplasia, cleft palate, short stature due to spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, premature arthritis

 

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Stickler syndrome

(Connective tissue disorder)

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Peeling skin at birth, perioral hyperpigmentation, hypotrichosis (sparse hair), hypohidrosis or anhydrosis (little-to-no sweating), hypodontia (5-7 teeth), conical shaped teeth, XL carriers may show mosaic pattern of hypohidrosis and hypodontia

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Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (HED)

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Four stages of skin changes: erythema->blister->hyperpigmented streaks -> atrophic patches; hypo/andontia, small or malformed teeth, alopecia, woolly hair, nail ridging or pitting, retinal detachment, ID is rare, normal life expectancy

 

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Incontinentia Pigmenti

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Albinism, nystagmus, translucent iris, ocular abnormalities, vision problems, range of skin and eye pigmentation

 

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Oculocutaneous Albinism

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Features/Dx Criteria: Acute onset adrenal insufficiency (hyperkalemia, acidosis, hypoglycemia, shock), cryptorchidism, delayed puberty.  Carrier females: may have adrenal insufficiency or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

X-Linked Adrenal Hypoplasa Congenita (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)

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21-Hydroxylase-Deficient CAH (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)

Gene: CYP21A2

Inheritance: Autosomal Recessive

Clinical Features and Dx Criteria: Virilized female, precocious puberty, childhood virilization in males, infant with sodium loss crisis at birth. 

Nonclassic form: moderate enzyme deficiency with variable postnatal virilization, no salt wasting, but rare cortisol deficiency

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Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome 

Region: Xq11-q12

XLR

Phenotype: feminization of external genitalia, abnormal secondary sexual development, and infertility in 46,XY individuals. Absent or underdeveloped mullerian structures, increased risk for gonadal malignancy. May be complete (full female external genitalia, partial ambiguous external genitalia), or mild (predominantly male external genitalia with femine secondary sexual characteristics)

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EDS Kyphoscoliotic Type (Type VI)

  • Gene: PLOD1
  • Autosomal Recessive
  • Clinical Features and Dx Criteria: Major features: friable, hyperextensible skin, thin scars, easy bruising, generalized joint laxity, severe muscle hypotonia, progressive scoliosis, scleral fragility and rupture of the globe.  Minor features: widened atrophic scars, marfanoid habitus, rupture of medium sized arteries, mild to moderate delay of attainment of gross motor milestones
  • Molecular Tests: PLOD1 seq research only, unknown frequency

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Clinical Features and Dx Criteria: Major features: friable, hyperextensible skin, thin scars, easy bruising, generalized joint laxity, severe muscle hypotonia, progressive scoliosis, scleral fragility and rupture of the globe.  Minor features: widened atrophic scars, marfanoid habitus, rupture of medium sized arteries, mild to moderate delay of attainment of gross motor milestones

EDS Kyphoscoliotic Type (Type VI)

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Kallman Syndrome Type 1 and 2 (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)

  • Genes: KAL, FGFR1
  • X-linked recessive or autosomal dominant
  • Type 1 AND 2 features: hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia (no sense of smell). Usually present with delayed pubertal development
  • Type 1: can also include mirror hand movements, ataxia, GU anomaly, high palate, pes cavus
  • Type 2: ID, CL/P cryptorchidism, choanal atresia, CHD, sensorineural hearing loss
  • Molecular Tests: Sequencing KAL (5-10%), FGFR1 (8-16%)

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Type 1 AND 2 features: hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia (no sense of smell). Usually present with delayed pubertal development

Type 1: can also include mirror hand movements, ataxia, GU anomaly, high palate, pes cavus

Type 2: ID, CL/P cryptorchidism, choanal atresia, CHD, sensorineural hearing loss

Kallman Syndrome Type 1 and 2 (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)

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Klinefelter Syndrome (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)

47, XXY

Clinical features: tall stature, slightly delayed motor and language skills, increased learning problems, testosterone plateaus age 14, small fibrosed testes, azoospermia and infertility, gynecomastia, increased cholesterol, slightly increased risk of autoimmune disorders and mediastinal germ cell tumors (1% risk)

Disease Mechanism: 1st or 2nd meiotic division nondisjunction of either parent. Maternal>paternal origin + AMA effect

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Clinical features: tall stature, slightly delayed motor and language skills, increased learning problems, testosterone plateaus age 14, small fibrosed testes, azoospermia and infertility, gynecomastia, increased cholesterol, slightly increased risk of autoimmune disorders and mediastinal germ cell tumors (1% risk)

 

Klinefelter Syndrome (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)

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McCune-Albright Syndrome (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)

  • Gene: GNAS
  • Sporadic Inheritance
  • Clinical Features: polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, pathologic fracture, cranial foramina thickening -> deafness and blindness, large irregular cafe au lait ("coast of Maine"), precocious puberty, hyperthyroidism, increased GH, PRL, or PTH, ovary cysts
  • Clinical Tests: x-ray, pelvic U/S, vision and hearing tests, pituitary hormone analysis
  • Molecular tests: targeted mutation analysis

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  • Clinical Features: polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, pathologic fracture, cranial foramina thickening -> deafness and blindness, large irregular cafe au lait ("coast of Maine"), precocious puberty, hyperthyroidism, increased GH, PRL, or PTH, ovary cysts

McCune-Albright Syndrome (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)

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Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus

Genes: HYMA1, PLAGL1

Inheritance: UPD isodisomy chromosome 6, paternal 6q24 duplication, or 6q24 methylation defect

Clinical features: Diabetes Mellitus in the first six weeks of life, resolves by 18 months, severe IUGR, dehydration, hyperglycemia. Occassional macroglossia and umbilical hernia

Molecular Tests: UPD6 (35%), 6q24 duplications (35%), imprinting mutation (20%)

Disease mechanims: PLAGL1 and HYMAI are normally only expressed on the paternal allele, unclear why overexpression causes DM. HYMAI may regulate PLAGL1 expression

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Clinical features: Diabetes Mellitus in the first six weeks of life, resolves by 18 months, severe IUGR, dehydration, hyperglycemia. Occassional macroglossia and umbilical hernia

 

Disease mechanims: PLAGL1 and HYMAI are normally only expressed on the paternal allele, unclear why overexpression causes DM. HYMAI may regulate PLAGL1 expression

Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus

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Turner Syndrome

  • 45,X
  • Genes: X genes that escape inactivation, SHOX (short stature homeobox protein)
  • Clinical Features and Diagnostic Criteria: congenital lymphedema, growth failure, normal intelligence (10% sig delays), coarctation of the aorta, bicuspid aortic valve, HLHS, hyperlipidemia, gonadal dysgenesis (10% 45,X go into puberty), hypothyroidism, diabetes, strabismus, recurrent OM, Sensorineural Hearing Loss, Crohns, renal malformation, osteoporosis
  • Molecular tests: Karyotype

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  • Clinical Features and Diagnostic Criteria: congenital lymphedema, growth failure, normal intelligence (10% sig delays), coarctation of the aorta, bicuspid aortic valve, HLHS, hyperlipidemia, gonadal dysgenesis (10% 45,X go into puberty), hypothyroidism, diabetes, strabismus, recurrent OM, Sensorineural Hearing Loss, Crohns, renal malformation, osteoporosis

Turner Syndrome

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