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Chemistry - D > Synthesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Synthesis Deck (31):
1

Alkene to Alkane

H2, Nickel Catalyst, 150

2

Alkane to Halo-Alkane

Alkene to Halo-Alkane

X2 UV LIGHT

HX

3

Halo-Alkane to Nitrile

NaCN and ethanol

4

Alkene to Alcohol

Alcohol to Alkene

H3PO4 Catalyst, Steam

H3PO4

5

Alcohol to Halo-Alkane

Halo-Alkane to Alcohol

Nax, H2SO4

NaOH, H20

6

Aldehyde/Ketone to Hydroxy-Nitrile

HydroxyNitrile to Amine

Nitrile to Amine

HCN

LiAlH4, Pt catalyst

LiAlH4, Pt catalyst

7

Carboxylic Acid to Acyl Chloride

Acyl Chloride to Carboxylic acid

SOCL2

Cold H20

8

Acyl Chloride to Amide

Acyl Chloride to Ester

NH3

Alcohol

9

Arrange in boiling points
Methyl alkane, alcohol, amine, alkane, haloalkane

Alcohol>Amine>Haloalkane>Alkane>Methyl Alkane

10

Define Homologous series

Compound with same function group, each subsequent member differing by CH2

11

Define Optical Isomerism

Non super imposable mirror images

12

Describe a method to obtain a pure, dry sample of alkene from the reaction mixture

Use a separating funnel to separate organic and aqueous layers.
Dry with an anhydrous salt.
Re-distillation.

13

Explain why chlorine reacts more readily with C6H5N(CH3)2 than with benzene

Lone pair of electrons on N is partially delocalised into the ring. Electron density is higher than benzene, meaning Cl2 is more polarised.

14

Describe a method to obtain a pure sample of 3-nitrobenzoic acid from the impure solid

1) Recrystallise
2) Dissolve impure solid in minmimum volume of hot water solvent
3) Cool solution
4) Wash with cold water

15

Explain the purpose of each underlined point
1)Minimum volume;
2)Hot water;
3)Filtered Hot;
4) Cooled in Ice;
5)Washed with cold water

1)To increase yield
2) Remove soluble impurities
3) Increase crystals
4) Allow product to crystallise
5) Remove soluble impurities

16

Evidence against Kekule model

1) lack of reactivity (did not react with bromine water)
2) lengths C-C bonds are different
3) hydrogenation enthalpies (less exothermic than predicted

17

Test for whether carboxylic acid/phenol

react with Na2CO3
carboxylic acid will produce CO2

18

Test for carbonyl group:

Bradys reagent, Brown/Orange ppt if carbonyl group present

19

Test for aldehyde:

Tollen’s reagent, positive test forms a silver mirror

20

Explain why benzene does not react with bromine

1) Delocalised electrons spread above and below the plane
2) Electron density is lower
3) Cannot induce dipoles

21

Nitrobenzene to phenylamine

Tin, Conc HCl then NaOH

22

Phenol to Sodium Phenoxide

NaOH

23

What is the reason for using Tetramethylsilame (TMS)

Acts as a standard

24

Alkane Shape name and size

109.5 Tetrahedral

25

Number of sigma pie bonds in benzene

12 sigma bonds, 3 pie bonds

26

Sigma bond formation

Pie bond formation

Direct overlap of orbitals, high electron density strongest bond

Sideways overlap of p orbitals, electron density spread out, weaker bond.

27

Define Stereoisomers

Sane structural formula but different arrangment of atoms in space

28

Define Free Radicals

Species with an unpaired electron

29

Atomic orbital

Region around the nucleus that can hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins

30

Nitrile to Carboxylic acid

HCl

31

Halo alkane to Amine

Excess ethanolic ammonia