Systemic and Metabolic Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Systemic and Metabolic Disorders Deck (55)
1

What are the effects of B1 deficiency?

-Cardiomyopathy
-Peripheral neuropathy
-Wernicke-Korsakoff

2

What is classic triad for Wernicke's syndrome?

-Delirium
-Ataxia
-Ophthalmoplegia

3

What area of the brain is affected with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?

Mamillary bodies

4

What are the neurological s/sx of B12 deficiency?

Distal symmetric sensory loss with UMN and MS changes

5

What are the s/sx of B6 deficiencies?

-Sensory ataxia
-Neuropathy
-Seborrhoeic dermatitis
-atrophic glossitis
-angular cheilitis

6

What drug can cause a B6 deficiency?

Isoniazid

7

What are the s/sx of niacin (B3) deficiency?

Pellagra:
Dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death

Neuropathy

8

What are the s/sx of vitamin A deficiency?

-Night blindness
-Xerophthalmia

9

What are the ss/x of vitamin D deficiency?

Weakness

10

What are the s/sx of vitamin E deficiency?

-Neuropathy
-Spinocerebellar ataxia

11

What are the s/sx of vitamin K deficiency?

No neurological s/sx, but coagulopathy may result in ICH

12

What are the s/sx of hypernatremia?

-MS changes
-Szs
-Weakness

13

What are the s/sx of hyponatremia?

-MS changes
-Szs

14

Rapid correction of hyper or hyponatremia may result in osmotic demyelination? What is this called?

Hyponatremia--Central pontine myelinolysis

15

Which is usually more symptomatic: hyper or hyponatremia?

Hyponatremia

16

What are the s/sx of hypokalemia?

Weakness

17

What are the s/sx of hypercalcemia? Causes?

-MS changes, cramps, weakness

-malignancy, hyperparathyroidism

18

What are the s/sx of hypocalcemia?

-Hypoparathyroidism
-Renal failure
-Pancreatitis

Tetany

19

What is Chvostek's sign? Trousseau's sign?

Chvostek's = facial nerve tapping

Trousseau's sign = BP cuff

Both are from hypocalcemia

20

What are the s/sx of hypermagnesemia?

Hyporeflexia, lethargy

21

What usually causes hypomagnesemia?

IVF
Renal failure
Antacids

22

What do we treat with Mg that can cause hypermagnesemia?

Eclampsia

23

What are the s/sx of hypomagnesemia?

Like hypocalcemia

24

What are the s/sx of hypoglycemia?

-MS changes
-Seizures
-Focal cerebral dysfunction

25

What are the s/sx of hyperglycemia?

-DKA
-MS changes

26

True or false: hypoglycemia can cause focal neurological deficits

True

27

What is posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES)? What are the s/sx of this?

HTN caused encephalopathy that occurs in the posterior aspect of the brain

-Accelerated HTN
-HA, seizures, MS changes
-Papilledema

28

What may an MRI show with PRES?

Parieto-occipital white matter changes

29

What are the neurological s/sx of hypoxia 2/2 pulmonary dz?

-HAs
-Lethargic
-MS changes

30

What are the s/sx of hepatic encephalopathy?

-Asterixis
-MS changes
-Encephalopathy

31

What are the EEG findings of hepatic encephalopathy?

Triphasic waves

32

What are the neurological s/sx of renal dz?

-MS changes
-Asterixis
-Seizures
-Myoclonus
-Polyneuropathy

33

CNS infection in renal disease = what infectious agent?

Listeria

34

Why hypocalcemia with pancreatic disease?

Pancreatitis enzymes use Ca

35

What are the s/sx of hashimoto's encephalopathy?

-Relapsing progressive ms changes
-Periodic paralysis

36

What must always be checked with neurological s/sx 2/2 thyroid issues?

Anti-TPO antibodies

37

What is the treatment for dementia 2/2 thyroid dysfunction?

Steroids

38

What is the most common hematological disorder that can cause neurological s/sx?

Sickle cell anemia

39

What is TTP? What are the neuro s/sx of this?

-inhibition of the ADAMTS13 metalloprotease responsible for cleaving large numbers of vWF, causing an increase in the number of platelets adhering to sites of damage, and thrombocytopenia

-Hallucinations
-Delerium
-HAs

40

Neurosarcoidosis usually presents?

-Multiple different cranial neuropathies

-Aseptic meningitis

41

How do you definitively diagnose neurosarcoidosis?

Bx

42

Who usually gets Takayasu Arteritis?

Young adult asian women or children

43

What are the neurological disturbances with Takayasu arteritis?

Focal cerebral ischemia or subclavian steal

44

What is Takayasu arteritis? What vessels are usually affected?

Large vessel granulomatous vasculitis, usually affecting the aorta and pulmonary arteries, that usually causes diminished peripheral pulses

45

What is Kawasaki disease? What is the classic sign? What are the neuro s/sx? Who is usually affected?

-Autoimmune medium sized vasculitis. Can cause coronary aneurysms.
-Strawberry tongue
-Facial weakness, seizures, strokes
-Infants and children

46

What is polyarteritis nodosa? What are the neuro s/sx? Who is usually affected?

a systemic vasculitis of small- or medium-sized muscular arteries, causing ischemic damage to the skin, kidneys, nervous system. Can cause MI.

47

What is Wegener's granulomatosis? What are the neuro s/sx? Who is usually affected?

a systemic disorder that involves both granulomatosis and polyangiitis. It is a form of vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) that affects small- and medium-size vessels in many organs. Damage to the lungs and kidneys (RPGN) can be fatal.

Mononeuritis multiplex

48

What is the ab that is elevated with Wegener's granulomatosis?

c-ANCA

49

What are the renal problem of Wegener's?

RPGN

50

What is primary CNS angiitis? S/sx?

-Idiopathic inflammation of blood vessels only in the CNS

-HA
-Sz
-MS change

51

What is neuroleptic malignant syndrome? S/sx?

-Life-threatening adverse reaction to neuroleptic or antipsychotics

-Fever, autonomic instability, MS change, rigidity

52

What is the treatment for NMS?

Dopaminergic antagonists or discontinuance of dopaminergic agents

53

What are the s/sx of serotonin syndrome? Treatment?

-MS change
-Fever
-Hemodynamic instability

54

What is the typical type of neurologic s/sx of thyroid dz?

Periodic paralysis

55

What are the neuro s/sx of sickle cell disease?

Strokes
Seizures
CNS infections