Flashcards in Systemic and Metabolic Disorders Deck (55)
What are the effects of B1 deficiency?
What is classic triad for Wernicke's syndrome?
What area of the brain is affected with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?
What are the neurological s/sx of B12 deficiency?
Distal symmetric sensory loss with UMN and MS changes
What are the s/sx of B6 deficiencies?
What drug can cause a B6 deficiency?
What are the s/sx of niacin (B3) deficiency?
Dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death
What are the s/sx of vitamin A deficiency?
What are the ss/x of vitamin D deficiency?
What are the s/sx of vitamin E deficiency?
What are the s/sx of vitamin K deficiency?
No neurological s/sx, but coagulopathy may result in ICH
What are the s/sx of hypernatremia?
What are the s/sx of hyponatremia?
Rapid correction of hyper or hyponatremia may result in osmotic demyelination? What is this called?
Hyponatremia--Central pontine myelinolysis
Which is usually more symptomatic: hyper or hyponatremia?
What are the s/sx of hypokalemia?
What are the s/sx of hypercalcemia? Causes?
-MS changes, cramps, weakness
What are the s/sx of hypocalcemia?
What is Chvostek's sign? Trousseau's sign?
Chvostek's = facial nerve tapping
Trousseau's sign = BP cuff
Both are from hypocalcemia
What are the s/sx of hypermagnesemia?
What usually causes hypomagnesemia?
What do we treat with Mg that can cause hypermagnesemia?
What are the s/sx of hypomagnesemia?
What are the s/sx of hypoglycemia?
-Focal cerebral dysfunction
What are the s/sx of hyperglycemia?
True or false: hypoglycemia can cause focal neurological deficits
What is posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES)? What are the s/sx of this?
HTN caused encephalopathy that occurs in the posterior aspect of the brain
-HA, seizures, MS changes
What may an MRI show with PRES?
Parieto-occipital white matter changes
What are the neurological s/sx of hypoxia 2/2 pulmonary dz?
What are the s/sx of hepatic encephalopathy?
What are the EEG findings of hepatic encephalopathy?
What are the neurological s/sx of renal dz?
CNS infection in renal disease = what infectious agent?
Why hypocalcemia with pancreatic disease?
Pancreatitis enzymes use Ca
What are the s/sx of hashimoto's encephalopathy?
-Relapsing progressive ms changes
What must always be checked with neurological s/sx 2/2 thyroid issues?
What is the treatment for dementia 2/2 thyroid dysfunction?
What is the most common hematological disorder that can cause neurological s/sx?
Sickle cell anemia
What is TTP? What are the neuro s/sx of this?
-inhibition of the ADAMTS13 metalloprotease responsible for cleaving large numbers of vWF, causing an increase in the number of platelets adhering to sites of damage, and thrombocytopenia
Neurosarcoidosis usually presents?
-Multiple different cranial neuropathies
How do you definitively diagnose neurosarcoidosis?
Who usually gets Takayasu Arteritis?
Young adult asian women or children
What are the neurological disturbances with Takayasu arteritis?
Focal cerebral ischemia or subclavian steal
What is Takayasu arteritis? What vessels are usually affected?
Large vessel granulomatous vasculitis, usually affecting the aorta and pulmonary arteries, that usually causes diminished peripheral pulses
What is Kawasaki disease? What is the classic sign? What are the neuro s/sx? Who is usually affected?
-Autoimmune medium sized vasculitis. Can cause coronary aneurysms.
-Facial weakness, seizures, strokes
-Infants and children
What is polyarteritis nodosa? What are the neuro s/sx? Who is usually affected?
a systemic vasculitis of small- or medium-sized muscular arteries, causing ischemic damage to the skin, kidneys, nervous system. Can cause MI.
What is Wegener's granulomatosis? What are the neuro s/sx? Who is usually affected?
a systemic disorder that involves both granulomatosis and polyangiitis. It is a form of vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) that affects small- and medium-size vessels in many organs. Damage to the lungs and kidneys (RPGN) can be fatal.
What is the ab that is elevated with Wegener's granulomatosis?
What are the renal problem of Wegener's?
What is primary CNS angiitis? S/sx?
-Idiopathic inflammation of blood vessels only in the CNS
What is neuroleptic malignant syndrome? S/sx?
-Life-threatening adverse reaction to neuroleptic or antipsychotics
-Fever, autonomic instability, MS change, rigidity
What is the treatment for NMS?
Dopaminergic antagonists or discontinuance of dopaminergic agents
What are the s/sx of serotonin syndrome? Treatment?
What is the typical type of neurologic s/sx of thyroid dz?