systemic response to injury and metabolic support Flashcards Preview

Surgery PLE > systemic response to injury and metabolic support > Flashcards

Flashcards in systemic response to injury and metabolic support Deck (20):
1

This cytokine induces muscle breakdown and cachexia

TNF - Alpha

2

This cytokine induces fever

IL - 1

3

This cytokine promotes lymphocyte proliferation, immunoglobulin production

IL - 2

4

This cytokine prolongs activated neutrophil survival and is a mediator of acute phase response

IL - 6

5

This cytokine is a chemoattractant

IL - 8

6

This cytokine activates macrophage via TH1 cells

IFN - y

7

This function as intracellular chaperones for ligands such as bacterial DNA and endotoxin and alert the immune system of the tissue damage

HSP

8

It is associated with eosinophil and mast cell release

Histamine

9

wound healing is impaired by cholesterol through reduction of

TGF - B
IGF

10

This promotes protein synthesis and insulin resistance and enhance mobilization of fat stores

GH
IGF - 1

11

Normal caloric requirement of healthy adult

22 - 25 kcal/kg/day

12

What is the principal source of fuel during short term fasting <5 days

lipids

13

When does ketone bodies become the principal source of fuel

starts after 2 days of starvation
24 days

14

What is the primary source of energy in critical illness and stressed states

lipids

15

caloric adjustment for hypermetabolic conditions

1. mild stress - 25 - 30
2. moderate - 30
3. severe - 30 - 35
4. burns - 35 to 40

16

What vitamin is not part of parenteral nutrition and must be supplemented weekly

vitamin K

17

Most common trace mineral deficiency and is associated with diffuse eczematoid rash at intertriginous area

Zinc

18

What is the effect of prostacyclin in inflammation

inhibit platelet aggregation and vasodilation

19

How much does sepsis increase metabolic need

50%

20

what is the initial enteric formula for majority of surgical patients

low residue isotonic formula
1.0 kcal/ml - requires 1500 to 1800 ml