Flashcards in Systems Deck (68):
contains skeletal system and muscular system which includes joints, ligaments, bones, muscles, tendons and cartridge
consists of the bones and joints
skeletal muscle system
voluntary or striated muscle
the bones or shell of an animal that support and protect it as well as allowing movement
the pieces of hard tissue that make up the skeleton of a vertebrate
a substance inside bones in which blood cells are made
a waxy, whitish, flexible substance that lines or connects bone joints or, in some animals such as sharks, replaces bone as the supporting skeletal tissue. The ears and tips of noses of people are shaped by cartilage.
an element occurring in limestone, chalk, also present in vertebrates and other animals as a component of bone, shell etc. It is necessary for nerve conduction, heartbeat, muscle contraction and many other physiological functions.
a substance that plays an important role in almost every chemical reaction in the body. Together with calcium, it is required by the body to maintain healthy bones and teeth.
any of the inorganic elements that are essential to the functioning of the human body and are obtained from foods
hardening of bones
breaks easily into many pieces
region where two bones meet
band of tough tissue that connects the ends of bones or keeps an organ in place
the liquid inside the cavity surrounding a joint that helps bones to slide freely over each other
joint that allows a twisting movement
joints in which two bones are connected so that movement occurs in one plane only
ball and socket joints
joints where the rounded end of one bone fits into the hollow end of another
joints that allow no movement except when absorbing a hard blow
tissue consisting of cells that can shorten
muscles not under the control of the will; they contract slowly and rhythmically. These muscles are at work in the heart, intestines and lungs.
muscle attached to bones; it moves the bones by contracting and is controlled by an animal’s thoughts
tough rope-like tissue connecting a muscle to a bone
red blood cells
white blood cells
red blood cells
living cells in the blood that transport oxygen to all other living cells in the body
the red pigment in red blood cells that carries oxygen
haemoglobin with oxygen molecules attached
white blood cells
living cells that fight bacteria and viruses as part of the human body’s immune system
small bodies involved in blood clotting. They are responsible for healing by clumping together around a wound
the body system that circulates oxygen in blood to all the cells of the body. The circulatory system consists of the heart, the blood vessels and blood.
hollow tubes (vessels) with thick walls carrying blood pumped from the heart to other body parts
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. They have valves and thinner walls than arteries.
minute tubes carrying blood to body cells. Every cell of the body is supplied with blood through capillaries.
describes the bright red blood that has been supplied with oxygen in the lungs
describes blood from which some oxygen has been removed
large vein leading into the top right chamber of the heart
upper left section of the heart where oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the heart
upper right section of the heart where deoxygenated blood from the body enters
lower left section of the heart, which pumps oxygenated blood to all parts of the body
lower right section of the heart, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs
flap-like folds in the lining of a blood vessel or other hollow organ that allow a liquid, such as blood, to flow in one direction only
the sound made by the heart valves as they close
measures how strongly the blood is pumped through the body’s main arteries
the higher blood pressure reading during contraction of the heart muscles
the lower blood pressure reading during relaxation of the heart muscles
contraction of the heart muscle occurring about 60–100 times per minute
alternating contraction and expansion of arteries due to the pumping of blood by the heart
electronic device inserted in the chest to keep the heart beating regularly at the correct rate. It works by stimulating the heart with tiny electrical impulses.
special kind of muscle in the heart that never tires. It is involved in pumping blood through the heart.
the yellowish, liquid part of blood that contains water, minerals, food and wastes from cells.
a gas in the air (and water) that animals need to breathe in; made up of particles with two oxygen atoms. Plants produce oxygen as part of photosynthesis.
the chemical reaction involving oxygen that moves the energy in glucose into the compound ATP. The body is able to use the energy contained in ATP
a simple carbohydrate and the simplest form of sugar
removal of wastes from the body
external covering of an animal body
the organ for breathing air. Gas exchange occurs in the lungs
largest gland in the body. The liver secretes bile for digestion of fats, builds proteins from amino acids, breaks down many substances harmful to the body and has many other essential functions.
body organs that filter the blood, removing urea and other wastes
the filtration and excretory units of the kidney
tubes from each kidney that carry urine to the bladder
sac that stores urine
yellowish liquid, produced in the kidneys. It is mostly water and contains waste products from the blood such as urea, ammonia and uric acid.
passing of urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
tube through which urine is emptied from the bladder to the outside of the body
a cup-like structure at one end of a nephron within the kidney, surrounding the glomerulus. It serves as a filter to remove wastes and excess water.
a cluster of capillaries in the kidney that acts as a filter to remove wastes and excess water