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Flashcards in Systems Deck (68):
1

Musculoskeletal system

contains skeletal system and muscular system which includes joints, ligaments, bones, muscles, tendons and cartridge

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Skeletal system

consists of the bones and joints

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skeletal muscle system

voluntary or striated muscle

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skeleton

the bones or shell of an animal that support and protect it as well as allowing movement

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bones

the pieces of hard tissue that make up the skeleton of a vertebrate

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bone marrow

a substance inside bones in which blood cells are made

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cartilage

a waxy, whitish, flexible substance that lines or connects bone joints or, in some animals such as sharks, replaces bone as the supporting skeletal tissue. The ears and tips of noses of people are shaped by cartilage.

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calcium

an element occurring in limestone, chalk, also present in vertebrates and other animals as a component of bone, shell etc. It is necessary for nerve conduction, heartbeat, muscle contraction and many other physiological functions.

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phosphorus

a substance that plays an important role in almost every chemical reaction in the body. Together with calcium, it is required by the body to maintain healthy bones and teeth.

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minerals

any of the inorganic elements that are essential to the functioning of the human body and are obtained from foods

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ossification

hardening of bones

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brittle

breaks easily into many pieces

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joint

region where two bones meet

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ligaments

band of tough tissue that connects the ends of bones or keeps an organ in place

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synovial fluid

the liquid inside the cavity surrounding a joint that helps bones to slide freely over each other

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pivot joint

joint that allows a twisting movement

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hinge joints

joints in which two bones are connected so that movement occurs in one plane only

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ball and socket joints

joints where the rounded end of one bone fits into the hollow end of another

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immovable joints

joints that allow no movement except when absorbing a hard blow

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muscles

tissue consisting of cells that can shorten

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involuntary muscles

muscles not under the control of the will; they contract slowly and rhythmically. These muscles are at work in the heart, intestines and lungs.

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voluntary muscles

muscle attached to bones; it moves the bones by contracting and is controlled by an animal’s thoughts

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tendons

tough rope-like tissue connecting a muscle to a bone

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erythrocytes

red blood cells

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leucocytes

white blood cells

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red blood cells

living cells in the blood that transport oxygen to all other living cells in the body

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haemoglobin

the red pigment in red blood cells that carries oxygen

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oxyhaemoglobin

haemoglobin with oxygen molecules attached

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white blood cells

living cells that fight bacteria and viruses as part of the human body’s immune system

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platelets

small bodies involved in blood clotting. They are responsible for healing by clumping together around a wound

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circulatory system

the body system that circulates oxygen in blood to all the cells of the body. The circulatory system consists of the heart, the blood vessels and blood.

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arteries

hollow tubes (vessels) with thick walls carrying blood pumped from the heart to other body parts

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veins

blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. They have valves and thinner walls than arteries.

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capillaries

minute tubes carrying blood to body cells. Every cell of the body is supplied with blood through capillaries.

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oxygenated blood

describes the bright red blood that has been supplied with oxygen in the lungs

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deoxygenated blood

describes blood from which some oxygen has been removed

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vena cava

large vein leading into the top right chamber of the heart

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left atrium

upper left section of the heart where oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the heart

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right atrium

upper right section of the heart where deoxygenated blood from the body enters

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left ventricle

lower left section of the heart, which pumps oxygenated blood to all parts of the body

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right ventricle

lower right section of the heart, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs

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valves

flap-like folds in the lining of a blood vessel or other hollow organ that allow a liquid, such as blood, to flow in one direction only

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lub dub

the sound made by the heart valves as they close

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blood pressure:

measures how strongly the blood is pumped through the body’s main arteries

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systolic pressure

the higher blood pressure reading during contraction of the heart muscles

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diastolic pressure

the lower blood pressure reading during relaxation of the heart muscles

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heartbeat

contraction of the heart muscle occurring about 60–100 times per minute

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pulse

alternating contraction and expansion of arteries due to the pumping of blood by the heart

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pacemaker

electronic device inserted in the chest to keep the heart beating regularly at the correct rate. It works by stimulating the heart with tiny electrical impulses.

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cardiac muscle

special kind of muscle in the heart that never tires. It is involved in pumping blood through the heart.

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Plasma

the yellowish, liquid part of blood that contains water, minerals, food and wastes from cells.

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Oxygen

a gas in the air (and water) that animals need to breathe in; made up of particles with two oxygen atoms. Plants produce oxygen as part of photosynthesis.

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Cellular respiration

the chemical reaction involving oxygen that moves the energy in glucose into the compound ATP. The body is able to use the energy contained in ATP

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Glucose

a simple carbohydrate and the simplest form of sugar

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Excretion

removal of wastes from the body

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Skin

external covering of an animal body

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Lungs

the organ for breathing air. Gas exchange occurs in the lungs

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Liver

largest gland in the body. The liver secretes bile for digestion of fats, builds proteins from amino acids, breaks down many substances harmful to the body and has many other essential functions.

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kidneys

body organs that filter the blood, removing urea and other wastes

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Nephrons

the filtration and excretory units of the kidney

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Ureters

tubes from each kidney that carry urine to the bladder

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Bladder

sac that stores urine

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Urine

yellowish liquid, produced in the kidneys. It is mostly water and contains waste products from the blood such as urea, ammonia and uric acid.

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urination

passing of urine from the bladder to the outside of the body

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Urethra

tube through which urine is emptied from the bladder to the outside of the body

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Bowman’s capsule

a cup-like structure at one end of a nephron within the kidney, surrounding the glomerulus. It serves as a filter to remove wastes and excess water.

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Glomerulus

a cluster of capillaries in the kidney that acts as a filter to remove wastes and excess water

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haemodialysis

the process of passing blood through a machine to remove wastes