Define a system
A set of parts which, once combined, have qualities that are no present in any over the parts themselves, These are called emergent properties.
What is a level 1 system?
A sub system, substantially within one engineering discipline and one organisation. eg Pc motherboard, gearbox.
What is a level 2 system?
A system that involves two or more engineering disciplines and/or requires two or more organisations to design, build operate or maintain it. eg Power station, car, hotel
What is a level 3 system?
A system of systems that impacts, or is impacted by, many disciplines and economic, social or environmental factors. eg national rail, NHS, telephone network
What are the 6 principles for integrated system design?
- Pursue the purpose
- Think holistic
- Follow a disciplined procedure
- Be creative
- Take account of the people
- Manage the project and relationships
What is the essence of the design principle of pursuing the purpose?
To find the requirements of the system (expressed in operational terms/what it will do not how it will do it), defining how the system will impact on its environment and how its environment will impact on the system
What is the essence of the design principle of thinking holistically?
Thinking holistically means considering the system as a whole, looking across all the parts and along all of the timeline. The parts include all the components, the environment, and tools/procedures used to build it. The timeline runs from very first concept all the way t maintenance and disposal at the end of its life.
What is the essence of the design principle of following a disciplined procedure?
Systems that work do not just happen, they have to be planned, designed and built
What is the essence of the design principle of managing the project and relationships?
You cant build an integrated system without an integrated organisation
What are the 4 types of developments that most developments fall into?
-Product development eg a car
-Low volume product/process development eg an oil tanker
-Process development eg a chemical plant/assembly machine
Service development eg healthcare services/consultancy services
What is the benefit of phased development?
It helps reduce risk, especially if areas of high technical risk are investigated and tested early. The nature of the phases depends on the type of product or service being developed.
What is systems thinking?
Systems thinking is a holistic approach to analysis that focuses on the way that a system’s constituent parts interrelate and how systems work over time and within the context of larger systems.