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Flashcards in Systems and Control Deck (35):

Why would you use QFD in concurrent manufacturing?

Reduces time to market
Reduces need to modify designs later
Improves Quality
Improves customer satisfaction


Why can FMS quickly responded to changes in production?

Automated material handling
Controlled by a central computer
Manufacturing cells linked together
Machine flexibility so multiple parts can be made by one machine
Routing flexibility so parts can travel down multiple lines l
Highly automated and reprogramable
Staff are trained to work on different machines


What does an ERP system do

A system coordinating processes resources and Activities
Integrating software from all departments
Provides a roadmap for fulfilling orders
Instant order upgrades
Easy invoicing


What are the advantages and disadvantages of ERP

All elements of production can be accessed
Workers can see information about products
Improves in house communication
Improves efficiency of customer management and improves customer satisfaction
Better brand recognition

Expensive to install
Success depends on workforce skill
Training required
System failure can be disastrous
May be initial teething problems


What is QRM

QRM allows for the company to change output depending on current market demands, stopping the risk of stockpiling or shortages which saves money

QRM contains a lot of different concepts and ideas like:
JIT: Just in time manufacturing
TQM: Total quality management
Manufacturing cells: Production teams can be moved to different parts of a production line increasing output wherever they go


Advantages and Disadvantages of QRM

Less tied up capital in stockpiled products
Quicker response times improves reputation increasing down the line profits and attracting new customers
Lower storage costs
Reduces waste
Reduces cost of quality by putting more accountability on specific production teams

Greater reliance on suppliers who need to react on demand and quickly accommodate production schedules
Large variations may cause the manufacturer to struggle to react
Managing and implementing change can be difficult as changes in roles and responsibility may cause friction among employees
To successfully implement it, the company needs backing from all departments


What is Concurrent Manufacturing

Concurrent manufacturing brings together people from different relevant disciplines to work together to solve problems with the design, quality, manufacturing etc.

It reduces product development time and allows for earlier release


Advantages and Disadvantages of QRM

Less tied up capital in stockpiled products
Quicker response times improves reputation
Lower storage costs
Reduces waste
Reduces cost of quality by putting more accountability on specific production teams
Shortened lead time (80-90%)
give companies a competitive advantage by increasing operating efficiency
allows companies to move from batch production to flow production
Flow production is influenced by market demands

Greater reliance on suppliers who need to react on demand and quickly accommodate production schedules
Large variations may cause the manufacturer to struggle to react
Managing and implementing change can be difficult as changes in roles and responsibility may cause friction among employees
To successfully implement it, the company needs backing from all departments


What is Product Data Management

Product data, software, processes, and other related information in a single central system

Includes CAD data, models, parts information, Manufacturing instructions, requirements, documents etc.

A PDM also highlights when changes are made one database so that any effects on other parts can be determined

It will also notify the next department when the component is ready for the next stage


Advantages of PDM

Reduces time to market
Eliminates Bottle Necks
Improved Productivity
Allows lead time to be reduced
Control is instant throughout the process
PDM is computerised allowing for automatic tracking
Helps reduce human error, reducing delays
Automatic notification for reaching the next stage
Allows electronic sign off
Data is submitted for review


What is Lean Manufacturing

Lean manufacturing is designed to ensure that the right materials components and products arrive at the right time and place, and in the right quantity


What do you need to introduce lean manufacturing

People need to change their long standing work practices and beliefs
Senior managers need to drive lean principles forward with total commitment
A total change of culture


Advantages and Disadvantages of Lean Manufacturing

Reduced overall Cost
Improved Quality
More Reliable Delivery times
Improved People Contribution
Reduced Waste and Overstocking
Saves warehouse space, and storage costs

If the forecasts are wrong there can be serious shortages
Increased reliance on suppliers, one hold up could cause serious delays
Serious logistics are needed to organise the whole production


What are the Key Stages of Lean Manufacturing?

Value: Focus on value, what’s the customer willing to pay for the product

Value Stream: See how value adding (Machining, Processing, Painting) and non-value adding (Scrapping, Sorting, Storing, Counting, Moving) activities effect efficiency of production

Flow: Design processes that result in uninterrupted material flow, from raw materials to finished products

Pull: Design manufacturing for pull of product through the process as a response to demand, rather than producing components without considering demand

Perfection: Adopt an approach that continually improves processes by adding greater value and by reducing waste


What are Pull Tools (Kanban)

A Kanban system uses cards or containers, as a simple visual signals to indicate when to pull materials, components, or products through the system


What are Perfection Tools (Kaizen)

Kaizen is continuous incremental improvement to the production process
Improvements are made regularly as changes may be low in cost, and improvements tend to be small


What are Manufacture Cells

A manufacturing cell is a group of workstations, machines or equipment, arranged so a product can be progressively processed without additional handling

Cells group products into families that can be processed with the same equipment

Cells enable the production to be broken down into segments


Name and describe 3 types of Manufacturing Cells

Functional Cells: Perform a specific function as opposed to manufacturing a complete product. E.G. a factory that machines metals may have a series of lathes in a turning cell. This type isn’t as flexible and produces excess waste

Group Technology /Mixed Model Cells: These perform a series of operations for several product lines that require similar manufacturing techniques

Product Focused Cells: Product focused, manufacturing one type of product through a series of operations, ideal for high volume manufacturing


Advantages and Disadvantages of CAQ

Allows for faster more accurate QC checks to take place
Give a 3D model of the product, so tolerances and accuracy can be better checked
Allows data to be stored to see if quality jumps and falls, and to see what part of the product is most likely to be faulty, allowing continuous improvement
Reduced labour costs as no one is needed to check quality
Increased H&S, and 24 hour running
Less likely to make a mistake

Expensive to set up
Needs to be adjusted for new products
Skilled work force required to maintain
You will never scan every product


Name 3 types of AVGs

Towing: First type, and still very popular, used to pull a verity of trailer types

Unit Load: Equipped with decks that allow for loads to be carried. They often work with unit load transfer

Pallet: These are designed to transport palletised loads from floor level, removing the need for fixed load stands

Fork Truck: Service load at both floor level and on stands, and come sometimes stack into racks

Light Load: Transport small parts (baskets) in limited spaces

Assembly Line: Similar to light load, for serial assembly processes, like manufacturing cells


Avantages and Disadvantages of Robots in Manufacturing

Ideal for repetitive tasks that require precision
No need for H&;S
Able to carry heavy loads
Easily reprogrammable
Can repeat the same task for years
Don’t tire, or suffer from lack of concentration, or stress
Improved productivity

Don’t have as great a sensory input as humans
They can’t learn or make decisions
Not as flexible as humans
Very high setup costs
High cost of making cells safe (collision sensors)
Maintenance for different brands of robots is different, so specialist training is required


What is an Open Loop Control System

These have no quality feedback, so they can continue without interference
This means It can't correct or detect any errors
It’s used in basic processes, due to its low cost and simplicity
An example is a light switch, it can only be on or off, there is no way of controlling output


What is a Closed Loop Control System

Systems that utilise feedback are called closed loop
They make decisions to change the process based on quality feedback
They have improved performance tracking, and can detect faults early
An example would be using a light sensor for a light switch, if the lighting falls below a pre-determined level it switches on
It’s an automatic system, requiring no human intervention


What is an Automated Storage and Retrieval system?

ASRS is an automated robotic system for sorting and retrieving items from warehouses. It works within CIM to control movement on material and components to the required points

Everything is stored in racks, where the system will retrieve it, place it on a conveyer or automated guided vehicle (AVG) for transport


Advantages and Disadvantages of Automated Storage and Retrieval systems

It offers increased tracking and inventory control, improving company image
More can be stored in the same area
Reduces labour costs
Improved H&S
Faster retrieval

Expensive to set up
Requires skilled labour to maintain
Jobs lost


Advantages and disadvantages of CAM

Enables very high accuracy
Faster production
Reduced labour costs



What is CIM

CIM bringing together all of a company’s separate manufacturing technologies

Under CIM teams share information and data and can easily communicate


Advantages and Disadvantages of CIM

Plans the most cost effective workflow
Automatically order stock and invoice customers
Allows teams to share information
Improves communication

Some software may be incompatible with others
Expensive to set up
If the systems fails the company can't function


Advantages and Disadvantages of AVGs

Reduced Labour Costs
Improved Safety
Increased accuracy and productivity
Can work in partnership with ARSR

Expensive to set up
Decreased flexibility
Require skilled workforce to maintain


How can robots be made autonomous

Intelligent vision systems
Infrared and X-Ray vision
Touch input (feel things)
More degrees of movement
A built in AI or Expert System


What is an Expert System

A computer system that can come up with a conclusion by processing large amount of data

Use of simulations to develop and test products or ideas, eliminating the need to prototype

Voice recognition could help designers by asking questions and bringing up relevant information based on there answers

Could be co workers helping to keep conversation flowing among teams


What are the uses of AI in industry

They can be used to test products eliminating the need for prototyping
Voice recognition can be added to allow manufactures to problem solve situations
Make production line decisions without human input
Process large amounts of data at once, speeding up production


What is FMS

An FMS is a form of flexible automation involving a series of machines linked together by a materials handling system all controlled by a central computer
An FMS brings together new manufacturing technologies such as: CNCs, Robotics, Automated material handling, etc.
An FMS system can process more than one style simultaneously

The system can react quickly to changes in production using 2 main FMS features:
Machine Flexibility: The systems function can be changed to produce new product types and change the order of operations
Routing Flexibility: Ability to use multiple machines to perform the same operation on a part, as well as the system ability to absorb large scale changes such as capacity or capability


Advantages and Disadvantages of FMS

Increased productivity due to automation
Shorter lead times due to flexibility
Lower labour cost
Improved production quality
Can produce multiple products on one line due to machine flexibility and router flexibility
Quickly react to changes in production by planning movement of materials and components
Brings together CNCs, Robotics, Automated material handling
Can vary in complexity and size

Great pre-planning before installation
High set up costs
Need skilled Labour


Describe characteristics of QRM

A companywide strategy to cut lead times

Aims to reduce production times for small batches

It will increase profitability by reducing non–value–added time cutting inventory and increasing return on investment

Responds to demand

high quality and low cost products

Increased flexibility to improve responsiveness quicker to market

Uses flow production instead of batch / mass production

KANBAN / KAIZAN / TQM / flexible manufacturing cells

large variations in demand causes problem