T-6 AERODYNAMICS LESSON REVIEW Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in T-6 AERODYNAMICS LESSON REVIEW Deck (225):
1

MASS / VOLUME = ______ (B/1/1)

DENSITY = MASS / VOLUME

2

What is done when a force acts upon a body and moves it? (B/1/2)

Work (W) is done when a force acts upon a body and moves it.
-Scalar quantity equal to the force (F) times the distance of displacement (s)
W = F x s

3

Which of Newton’s Laws state that “a body at rest tends to remain at rest and a body in motion tends to remain in motion ... unless acted upon by some unbalanced force?” (B/1/3)

"Law of Equilibrium"

-Newton's 1st Law of Motion

4

The measurement of the average kinetic energy of air particles is called ______. (B/2/1)

Temperature
-Temperature is the average kinetic energy of air particles.
-Air temperature decreases at a rate of -2'C every 1000ft
-Average, or standard, lapse rate

5

T or F? Dynamic pressure is the measurement of force that molecules exert on each other in a still fluid. (B/3/1)

FALSE. Dynamic pressure (PD) is a measure of impact pressure of a large group of air molecules moving together.

6

A higher than standard day density altitude will cause ______. (B/4/1)
a. increased climb performance
b. decreased takeoff roll
c. increased takeoff roll
d. high temperature

C - increased takeoff roll

-High DA reduces an aircraft's acceleration and climb performance

7

T or F? Groundspeed is indicated airspeed corrected for winds. (B/5/1)

FALSE. Groundspeed is true airspeed corrected for winds.

8

True Airspeed (TAS) must ______ as you climb in altitude for a constant indicated airspeed (IAS). (B/5/2)

increase

Air density decreases with an increase in altitude and TAS will increase if IAS is held in constant while climbing to a higher altitude.

9

The apparent motion of the air with respect to the motion of the aircraft is defined as the ______. (B/6/1)

relative wind

-Relative wind is in the direction opposite of the flight path.

10

The angle of attack (AOA) is defined as ______.(B/6/2)

AOA - the angle between the chordline of the airfoil and the relative wind

11

What is a benefit of a tapered wing? (B/6/3)

Tapered wings provide reduced weight and increased structural stiffness.

12

Which aircraft would have a higher aspect ratio? (B/6/4)
a. Glider
b. Fighter aircraft
c. Bomber aircraft
d. Balloon

A - Glider

-Aspect ratio (AR) is the ratio of the wingspan to the average chord.

13

Having a CG that is too far aft causes the aircraft to exhibit ______. (B/7/1)

the tendency to pitch up into a stall

14

What is the point from which movements in roll, yaw, and pitch axes are measured? (B/7/2)

Roll - Longitudinal axis
Yaw - Vertical axis
Pitch - Lateral axis

15

The axis about which the airplane’s nose moves up and down is the ______. (B/7/3)

Lateral axis

16

Moment is ______.

Moment = Force x Distance

Moment is what is created when a force is applied at some distance from an axis or fulcrum, producing rotation about that point.

17

What is "Mass per unit of volume" defined as?

MASS / VOLUME = DENSITY

18

What is potential energy?

-Ability of a body to do work because of its position or state of being.
-Potential energy is a function of mass, gravity, and height.

PE = WEIGHT x HEIGHT = MGH (mass, gravity, height)

19

What is the "Law of Interaction", Newton's 3rd Law of Motion?

"For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction."

20

True airspeed will be ______ indicated airspeed at 10,000 feet altitude.

a. less than
b. equal to
c. greater than
d. not enough information to determine

C - greater than

-At a constant IAS, TAS will increase approximately three knots for each thousand foot increase in altitude.

21

Define the chord of an airfoil.

Chord - the segment of the chordline measured from the leading edge to the trailing edge

Chordline - an infinitely long straight line drawn through the leading and trailing edges of an airfoil

Chord and Chordline used interchangeably

22

Air density is _____ at 10,000 feet compared to ______ feet.

a. lower/5000
b. equal/5000
c. equal/20,000
d. lower/20,000

A - lower/5000

Higher air is less dense than lower air

23

The altimeter setting for standard day where pressure altitude equals true altitude is ______ in-Hg.

29.92 inHG

24

The center of gravity is the point at which ______.

Center of gravity - the point at which all weight is considered to be concentrated

25

The ______ axis is which the aircraft nose moves left or right about the center of gravity.

Vertical axis (yaw)

26

Define lift
(B/1/1)

Lift
- An aerodynamic force
- The force that acts primarily against weight
- Aerodynamic components acting perpendicular to the relative wind

27

In straight and level flight (constant lift), angle of attack and velocity have ______ relationship. (B/1/2)

inverse

-In straight and level, AOA and velocity are inversely related
-As AOA increased, pilot will have to decrease velocity to maintain level flight
-If AOA is decreased, then velocity must increase to maintain level flight

28

Which airfoil produces no lift at zero degrees angle of attack? (B/1/3)

a. Symmetric airfoil
b. Dihedral airfoil
c. Swept wing airfoil
d. Cambered airfoil

Symmetric airfoil

-Air flowing over the top surface travels the same distance as air flowing over the bottom surface
-No pressure differential exists so no lift is produced

29

What is the benefit of geometric and aerodynamic twist on a wing? (B/1/4)

The twists make the wing root stall before the wing tip, allowing more time for the ailerons to be effective when the wing starts to stall.

-T-6 has both aerodynamic and geometric twist

30

Parasite drag is defined as drag ______. (B/2/1)

Drag that is not associated with the production of lift and is composed of:
-Form drag
-Friction drag
-Interference drag

31

Painting or cleaning the surface of a wing or aircraft will ______. (B/2/2)

a. reduce interference drag
b. increase parasite drag
c. increase total drag
d. reduce friction drag

D - reduce friction drag

32

Induced drag is caused by ______. (B/2/3)

the production of lift

33

In level flight, an increase in velocity will do what to drag? (B/2/4)

An increase in velocity will reduce induced drag.

34

Total drag is a combination of ______. (B/2/5)

Combination of parasite and induced drag.

35

In relation to velocity, total drag ______. (B/2/6)

-Will initially decrease as velocity increases
-Reach L/D MAX, where the ratio of lift to drag is the greatest
-Total drag will begin to increase after reaching L/D MAX as velocity increases

36

Ground effect is the phenomenon that reduces ______ due to a decrease in ______. (B/2/7)

Induced drag
Downwash

37

Thrust is the force that opposes ______. (B/3/1)

drag

38

Thrust available ______ as velocity increases for a propeller-driven aircraft. (B/3/2)

decreases

39

As velocity increases, a propeller’s PA will initially increase then ______. (B/3/3)

decrease due to a loss of thrust available as velocity increases

40

To roll the airplane to the right the ______. (C/1/1)
Which aileron rises/lowers and decreases/increases lift?

Right aileron rises / decreasing lift
Left aileron lowers / increasing lift

41

What must happen for the nose of the airplane to pitch up? (C/1/2)

-Control stick is pulled back
-Trailing edge of elevator moves up
-This produces a negative camber and lift in the opposite direction from the wing lift vector

42

Increasing the camber of a wing ______. (C/2/1)

-Increases the coefficient of lift (more lift)
-Decreases the stall angle of attack

43

The T-6A has which kind of trailing edge flaps? (C/2/2)

T-6A has split flaps

44

Lowering the landing gear causes an increase in what type of drag? (C/2/3)

parasite drag

45

Aerodynamic force is the ______.

Force that is the result of pressure and friction distribution over an airfoil.

46

The component of aerodynamic force that acts parallel to the relative wind is ______.

Drag
-Acts parallel and in the same direction as the relative wind

47

What type of airfoil produces lift at zero degrees angle of attack?

Cambered airfoil
-Airflow over the upper surface must travel a greater distance than airflow across the bottom surface
-Results in lower static pressure on the upper surface
-Static pressure differential pulls the wing upward, creating a lift force

48

L/D MAX is the point where ______.

the ratio of lift to drag is greatest

49

Total drag is composed of ______.

parasite and induced drag

50

What is parasite drag?

Drag that is not associated with the production of lift and is composed of:
-Form drag
-Friction drag
-Interference drag

51

Maximum excess power for a propeller-driven aircraft occurs ______ L/D MAX.

Maximum excess power for a propeller-driven aircraft occurs at L/D MAX.

52

As altitude increases, power available _____.

decreases

-Maximum engine output decreases with decreased air density
-Thrust Available (TA) and Power Available (PA) will decrease at higher altitudes

53

Lowering the flaps to ______ during an approach ______ drag but ______ visibility.

a. landing (full); decreases; reduces
b. takeoff (approximately 50%); reduces; improves
c. landing (full); increases; improves
d. takeoff (approximately 50%); does not change; reduces

C - Landing (full); increases; improves

-Extra drag at flaps landing settings allow for steeper approach angle and improved forward visibility

54

Define force, work, and power. (B/1/1)

Force (F) - a push or pull exerted on a body
- push/pull

Work (W) - a force acts upon a body and moves it
W = F x S S = displacement/distance
- force x distance

Power (P) - the rate of doing work
- work/unit of time
P = W / T T = time

55

What is equilibrium flight? (B/1/2)

-Equilibrium is the lack of acceleration in any direction
-Equilibrium exists when the sum of all forces around the center of gravity equals zero

56

What happens to air density as the temperature of air is increased while pressure remains constant? (B/2/1)

When pressure is constant, there is an inverse relationship between density and pressure.
-As temp increases, density decreases

57

What are the differences between true altitude, pressure altitude, and density altitude? (B/3/1)

True altitude - actual height above MSL

Pressure altitude - height measured above a standard datum plane

Density altitude - pressure altitude corrected for temperature deviations from the standard atmosphere

58

What are the characteristics of spanwise flow and chordwise flow over a wing? (B/4/1)

Spanwise
-airflow that travels along the span of the wing
-from root to tip
-does not create lift
Chordwise
-airflow at right angles to leading edge of airfoil
-accelerates over wing
-produces lift

59

Which aircraft has a higher aspect ratio, a C-5 or a F-18? (B/4/2)

C-5
Higher aspect ratio for more stability
Lower aspect ratio for more maneuveribility

60

What are the definitions for wing taper, sweep angle, dihedral angle, and angle of incidence? (B/4/3)

Wing taper - reduction in the chord for reduced weight and increased structural stiffness

Sweep angle - angle between the quarter chordline (a line that is 25% of the chord and not parallel to the leading edge) and line parallel to the lateral axis of the cockpit

Dihedral angle - angle of the upslope or downslope of the wings when viewed from head on
-upslope called a dihedral
-downslope called an anhedral

Angle of incidence - the angle between the airplane's longitudinal axis and the chordline of its wing

61

What is the center of gravity of an aircraft and how does it differ from the aerodynamic center? (B/5/1)

Center of gravity - the point at which all weight is considered to be concentrated
-also the point from which movement in all three axes are measured

Aerodynamic center - the center of lift
-the point where all aerodynamic forces are acting
-usually aft of acft CG for improved stability

62

What are the three aircraft axes? (B/5/2)

Longitudinal - Roll
Lateral - Pitch
Vertical - Yaw

63

What hazards are encountered if an aircraft is operated with excessive weight or the aircraft center of gravity out of limits? (B/5/3)

If CG too far aft:
-not enough elevator authority to maintain level flight
-airplane will want to continually pitch up and stall
If CG too far fwd:
-airplane will want to continually dive

64

What is aerodynamic force and which of the four major forces acting on an aircraft in-flight are aerodynamic forces? (C/1/1)

Aerodynamic force
-A force that is the result of pressure and friction distribution over an airfoil
-Two major aerodynamic forces : Lift , Drag

65

What are the relationships of the four major forces during takeoff? (C/1/2)

During TO ground run
-thrust exceeds drag
-weight exceeds lift

During liftoff
-thrust exceeds drag
-lift exceeds weight

66

How does a wing generate lift? (C/2/1)

-Dynamic pressure from an airstream splitting and flowing over the top and bottom of an airfoil produces an increase in dynamic pressure which decreases static pressure
-Static pressures below the airfoil are lower than atmospheric pressure and produce a lifting force
-Static pressure above the airfoil is less than below
-This differential pressure causes lift in the upward direction

67

What methods can the pilot use to change the coefficient of lift of an aircraft's wing? (C/2/2)

Angle of Attack
Shape or size of the airfoil (camber)
Velocity

68

What is total drag? (C/3/1)

-Total drag is the aerodynamic component parallel to and in the same direction as the relative wind
-Sum of parasite drag and induced drag

69

What causes induced drag? (C/3/2)

Induced drag is caused by the production of lift
- as velocity increases, induced drag decreases

70

What is ground effect and how does it affect landing? (C/3/3)

-Caused by a reduction in wing downwash
-Creates "floating" effect
-Occurs within one wingspan of ground

71

What is the relationship between shaft horsepower, thrust horsepower, and propeller efficiency? (C/4/1)

Shaft horsepower (SHP) - Engine output
Thrust horsepower (THP) - Propeller output
Propeller efficiency (pe) - THP / SHP
pe = THP / SHP

72

What are the effects of weight and altitude on the thrust required (TR) and power required (PR) curves? (C/4/2)

More TR and PR is required for more weight and altitude, resulting in shifts of the PR and TR curves up and right.

73

What is the major aerodynamic effect experienced by the aircraft when the landing gear is lowered in-flight? (C/5/1)

Parasite drag

74

What are the differences between true airspeed (TAS), groundspeed (GS), indicated airspeed (IAS), calibrated airspeed (CAS), and equivalent airspeed (EAS)?

TAS - actual AS at which an aircraft moves through an air mass
GS - speed at which an aircraft moves relative to the ground; TAS corrected for winds
IAS - speed that is read off of the ASI
CAS - IAS corrected for indicator error or for minor sensing errors caused by location of pitot-static system on an airplane
EAS - CAS corrected for errors caused by compressibility effects

75

What is the difference between a symmetric and a cambered airfoil?

Symmetric
-Zero camber
-Mean camber line (MCL) and chord are the same
Cambered
-MCL above the chord
-produces lift at zero AOA

76

What are the definitions for angle of attack, pitch angle, and angle of incidence?

AOA : Angle between chordline of the airfoil and the relative wind
Pitch angle : Angle between the longitudinal axis of an airplane and the horizon
Angle of Incidence : Angle between an airplane's longitudinal axis and the chordline of its wing

77

Why does parasite drag increase and induced drag decrease with increased airspeed?

-Parasite drag is dependent upon the amount of air flowing over, around, and between surfaces.
-Induced drag is created by the production of lift and is proportional to aircraft AOA.

78

When does maximum excess thrust occur for any aircraft in-flight?

-For propeller driven aircraft, max excess thrust occurs at a velocity less than L/D MAX
-Occurs when the difference between TA and TR is the greatest

TA: Thrust Available TR: Thrust Required

79

Does the maximum power excess for a prop aircraft occur at a velocity slower than, equal to, or faster than LDMAX airspeed?

In a propeller-driven aircraft, maximum power excess occurs at L/D MAX airspeed.

80

Takeoff distance can be reduced by ______. (B/1/1)

Increasing surface area or wing camber and CLMAX through use of TO flaps

81

Maximum range is defined as the ______. (B/1/2)

Distance an airplane can travel on a given amount of fuel

82

Critical Mach number is defined as the ______. (B/1/3)

Mach number that first produces evidence of local supersonic flow on an airplane

83

Flying ______will give you the most distance for the airplane’s altitude if the engine fails. (B/1/4)

L/D MAX
or
best glide speed

84

How will a headwind affect a maximum glide range? (B/1/5)

Headwind will decrease glide range

85

How is landing roll decreased relative to wind effects? (B/1/7)

-A headwind will decrease landing distance
-Due to lower groundspeed
-Less momentum to overcome with aerodynamic and wheel braking

86

What is P-factor caused by? (B/2/1)

P-factor is the propeller force that causes yawing
-Yawing caused by one propeller blade creating more thrust than the opposing blade

87

If the propeller rotates clockwise, ____. (B/2/2)


a. torque is opposite or counterclockwise
b. torque is the same or clockwise
c. torque is not a factor
d. gyroscopic precession is clockwise

A - torque is opposite or counterclockwise

-Result of Newton's 3rd Law "equal and opposite"
-Torque in opposite direction of propeller rotation causes a rotation in the opposite direction

88

Turn rate and radius are based on what factors? (B/3/1)

Velocity
Bank angle

89

11. In a skid, the balance ball of the turn and bank indicator is ______. (B/3/2)

deflected toward the outside of the turn due to centrifugal force

90

Thrust must increase in a turn due to the increase in ______. (B/3/3)

Drag
-During a turn, there is an increase in total lift requirements resulting in more drag
-To overcome the drag, thrust/power must be increased to maintain level altitude and constant airspeed

91

Load factor is the ratio of the ______ divided by ______. (B/4/1)

Load
Weight

92

Limit load factor is defined as ______. (B/4/2)

Greatest load factor an airplane can sustain without risk of permanent deformation or damage.

93

Asymmetric G limits are lower than symmetric because ______. (B/4/3)

Lower limits are imposed because the lift (G force) on the up-going wing is more than what is read on the cockpit accelerometer.

94

The G force required to maintain a 60° bank level turn is ______. (B/4/4)
Also 45' and 30'

60' bank - 2.0 G's
45' bank - 1.4 G's
30' bank - 1.15 G's

95

Positive static stability is ______. (B/5/1)

The initial tendency of an object to return to its original equilibrium.

96

Neutral dynamic stability is ______. (B/5/2)

Oscillations never dampen but remain at a constant amplitude.

97

After a disturbance that rolls the airplane, “...it generates forces that reduce the bank angle and returns it to wings-level”, is the definition of ______. (B/5/3)

Lateral stability
-Roll stability or stability around longitudinal axis
-An airplane exhibits lateral stability if after a disturbance that rolls the airplane, it generates forces that reduce the bank angle and return it to wings-level.

98

Cross-coupling causes ______. (B/5/4)

-Directional divergence
-Spiral divergence
-Dutch roll
-Proverse roll
-Adverse yaw

99

A PIO (Pilot Induced Oscillations) in the pitch axis is the result of ______. (B/5/5)

Pilot and inherent longitudinal stability of the airplane simultaneously trying to correct for the same oscillations.

100

Takeoff distance is ______.
a. decreased by a tailwind
b. increased by a tailwind
c. decreased by higher elevation
d. increased by use of flaps

B - increased by a tailwind

101

Max range is defined as ______.

The maximum distance an airplane can travel on a given amount of fuel.

102

Max endurance is ______.

The maximum time that an airplane can remain airborne on a given amount of fuel

103

Max glide range (flown at Best Glide Speed) is ______.

The airspeed flown power off which provides maximum range.
-This speed is based on L/D MAX and changes with weight
-T-6A best glide speed in clean config is 125KIAS

104

Gaining the most altitude in a given amount of time is ______.
Define:
Max Rate of Climb
Max Angle of Climb

Max Rate of climb: Gaining the most altitude in a given amount of time

Max Angle of climb: Gains the most altitude for distance travelled

105

Slipstream swirl is most noticeable during what power and airspeed setting?

High power, low airspeed

Slipstream: Corkscrewing airflow that travels around the fuselage
-Tail is pulled to the right and yaws the nose to the left
-Compensated for with right rudder

106

Ultimate load factor for the T-6A is defined as ______.

Maximum load factor that an aircraft can withstand without structural failure.

-150% of a limit load factor

107

Turn radius is a factor of ______.

Velocity and Bank Angle

108

Critical Mach is defined as ______.

The Mach number that first produces evidence of local supersonic flow on an airplane.

109

Sideslip angle is ______.

The difference between the flightpath and the longitudinal axis.

110

When flying at maximum endurance airspeed in the T-6A, increasing AOA to maintain level flight will result in ______.
a. higher airspeed requiring less power
b. higher airspeed requiring more power
c. slower airspeed requiring less power
d. slower airspeed requiring more power

D - Slower airspeed requiring more power

Maximum endurance is the maximum time that an airplane can remain airborne on a given amount of fuel.

111

What is the difference between maximum rate of climb and maximum angle of climb? (B/1/1)

Max Rate of climb: Gaining the most altitude in a given amount of time

Max Angle of climb: Gains the most altitude for distance travelled

112

What is the difference between maximum endurance and maximum range? (B/1/2)

Maximum Endurance: maximum time that an airplane can remain airborne on a given amount of fuel

Maximum Range: maximum distance an airplane can travel on a given amount of fuel

113

What is the definition of best glide speed and what is it for the T-6A? (B/1/3)

Best glide speed: airspeed flown in a power-off glide that provides maximum range

T-6A best glide airspeed (L/D MAX) : 125 KIAS

114

What is the region of reverse command? (B/1/4)

-More power required at slower airspeeds to maintain level flight
-Region of Thrust/Power Required curve left of minimum thrust/power required point

115

What control input is needed to compensate for torque effect? (B/2/1)

Right rudder

116

If the propeller rotates clockwise, torque is ______. (B/2/2)

counterclockwise or opposite

117

What causes P-factor? (B/2/3)

One propeller blade creating more thrust than its opposing blade.

118

What control inputs are necessary to perform a coordinated, level turn? What is the proper balance ball indication during the turn? (B/3/1)

Stick: Move in direction of turn, neutral after
Rudder: Apply in direction of turn, neutral after
Stick: Back pressure
PCL: Increase thrust/power (as required)
Balance ball: Centered

119

What are the causes and differences between a slip and a skid? Which one is more dangerous in- flight? (B/3/2)

Slip
-Insufficient or opposite rudder
-Ball deflected inside
-Turn radius increases, turn rate decreases
Skid
-Too much rudder
-Ball deflected outside
-Turn radius decreases, turn rate increases
-More dangerous at low altitude and low airspeed

120

Why does an aircraft experience more G forces in a level turn than in straight-and-level flight? (B/4/1)

-In a turn, total lift must be greater than 1G so the vertical component of lift equals weight.
-More bank = More total lift required

121

What is the difference between symmetric and asymmetric G-loading? (B/4/2)

Symmetric: Elevator deflection only

Asymmetric: Aileron/rudder deflection with elevator deflection

122

What is stability? What is the difference between static and dynamic stability? (B/5/1)

-Stability: Tendency for an object to return to state of equilibrium when disturbed
-Static Stability: Initial tendency of an object to move toward or away from its original equilibrium position
-Dynamic Stability: Position or motion of object over time after being disturbed from equilibrium

123

What is the relationship between aircraft stability and aircraft maneuverability? (B/5/2)

Stable aircraft are less maneuverable
-Heavies
Less stable aircraft are more maneuverable
-Fighters

124

What is the difference between sideslip angle and sideslip relative wind? (B/5/3)

Sideslip angle: Difference between flight path and longitudinal axis

Sideslip relative wind: Component of the relative wind parallel to the lateral axis

125

When do pilot induced oscillations (PIOs) occur and what is the remedy if a PIO occurs ? (B/5/4)

PIO's occur when the pilot over controls the aircraft in response to oscillations.
-Overcontrol leads to oscillations which increase in amplitude over time
-Remedied by neutralizing stick or freezing stick just aft of center

126

Of the factors affecting takeoff and landing performance, what is the single largest contributor to increasing takeoff or landing distance?

-Weight is the greatest factor

-Doubling weight quadruples both takeoff and landing distance

127

Why is it impossible to exceed the aircraft load limit at airspeeds below cornering velocity?

-Cornering velocity is the minimum airspeed at which the aircraft G-load limit can be obtained.
-Below this airspeed the aircraft will stall, making an over-G condition impossible.

128

What is the difference between positive and negative static stability?

Positive static stability: Tendency for an object to return to its original equilibrium position

Negative static stability: Tendency for an object to move away from its original equilibrium position

129

Which airframe component is the largest positive contributor to aircraft directional static stability?

Vertical stabilizer
-Due to its weathervane effect

130

Describe laminar airflow. (B/1/1)

Area of the boundary layer where air molecules flow smoothly within the streamline.

131

What force opposes and controls the adverse pressure gradient? (B/1/2)

Kinetic energy of the relative wind

132

What is the definition of boundary layer separation? (B/1/3)

Point in the streamline where airflow no longer adheres to the airfoil

133

What is the point of stall on a CL curve? (B/1/4)

C LMAX

134

What is the definition of a stall? (B/1/5)

Condition in flight where an increase in AOA results in decrease in CL

135

What is the key difference between an aircraft’s stall AOA and stall airspeed? (B/1/6)

-Stall AOA remains constant
-Stall airspeed is variable

136

What are the factors associated with increased thrust that impact stall characteristics? (B/2/1)

Vertical thrust component and propeller acceleration factor

137

What are the two major classifications of stalls? (B/2/2)

Power-on stall
Power-off stall

138

Which type of stall will have the lowest stall airspeed? (B/2/3)

Power-on stall

139

Which flight control would you normally expect to be least effective during a stall/stall recovery? (B/2/4)

Ailerons

140

How do you think increased G loading will affect stall airspeed? (B/3/3)

Stall airspeed increases

141

If maintaining level flight, what happens to stall airspeed as you increase bank angle? (B/3/4)

Stall airspeed increases because of the increase in load factor needed to maintain level flight.

142

What is the effect of increased weight on stall airspeed? (B/3/5)

Stall airspeed will increase

143

Higher G loading and higher bank angle = ______ stall airspeed. (B/3/6)

higher

144

What is the basic function of a boundary layer control (BLC) device? (B/4/1)

Suppress boundary layer separation

145

What is the T-6A stall AOA? (B/5/1)

18 units

146

What is the primary artificial stall warning in the T-6A? (B/5/2)

stick shaker

147

What does activation of the stick shaker indicate? (B/5/3)

Aircraft is approximately 5 to 10 knots above stall speed

148

What is the definition of boundary layer separation?

Point in streamline where airflow no longer adheres to the airfoil

149

What effect does increasing AOA have on the kinetic energy of the relative wind?

Decreases it

150

What is the definition of a stall?

Condition in flight where increase in AOA results in decrease in CL

151

What are the two major classifications of stalls?

Power-on stall
Power-off stall

152

What are the factors associated with increased thrust that impact stall characteristics?

Vertical component of thrust and propeller acceleration factor

153

What are the benefits provided by Boundary Layer Control (BLC) devices?

Increased maneuvering capabilities
Decreased landing speed and distance

154

Which type of stall will have the lower stall airspeed?

Power-on stall

155

What is the T-6A stall AOA?

18 units

156

What is the only reason the T-6A will stall?

Exceeding T-6A stall AOA (18 units)

157

Can an aircraft that is not stalled be in a spin? (B/1/1)

No. Both stall and yaw must be present to spin.

158

Define poststall gyration. (B/1/2)

Aerodynamic forces during stall that result in movement around the pitch, roll, and yaw axes.

159

What is the key factor affecting the intensity of poststall gyrations? (B/1/3)

Airspeed at time of the stall
-Higher energy (airspeed) at stall entry = greater post stall gyration tendency
-Lower energy (airspeed) at stall entry = less post stall gyration tendency

160

What is the definition of Angle of Attack (AOA)? (B/1/4)

Angle between the chordline and the relative wind

161

In a spin, which wing will have the higher AOA, up-going or down-going wing? (B/1/5)

Down-going (Inside) wing has higher AOA
-In a stall, higher AOA = less lift

Up-going (Outside) wing has a lower AOA than inside wing
-In a stall, lower AOA = more lift

162

What is the cause of autorotation in a spin? (B/1/6)

Unequal lift and drag forces acting on each wing

-Combination of roll and yaw that gets progressively worse due to asymmetrically stalled wings

163

How do aircraft enter an inverted spin? (B/1/7)

An aircraft must be in a negative G stall and yaw to enter an inverted spin.
-Attitude entry is not a factor

164

How does anti-spin rudder aid in recovery? (B/2/1)

Slows rotation and decreases AOA
-Rotation rate decreases due to an increase in horizontal drag component

165

Would an aircraft spinning with the stick other than full aft be in an accelerated or unaccelerated spin? (B/2/2)

Accelerated spin

-Anytime aircraft is spinning with stick other than full aft, the spin is accelerated

166

Higher pitch attitude at stall results in ________ spin entry and __________ oscillations. (B/2/3)

slower
less

-Higher pitch attitude = slower stall speed = slower entry with fewer oscillations
-Lower pitch attitude = higher stall speed = faster entry with more oscillations

167

Will a left or right spin stabilize at a lower pitch attitude? (B/2/4)

Right spin
-Due to gyroscopic precession (right hand rule)
-Stabilizes at lower pitch
-Stabilizes with more oscillation
-Rotation rate increased
Left spin has opposite characteristics

168

What causes the variance in left and right spin characteristics? (B/2/5)

Gyroscopic effect of the propeller

169

What two conditions must be present in order for an aircraft to spin?

Stall + Yaw = Spin

170

How does the introduction of yaw affect the lift and drag of a stalled wing?

Yaw creates an AOA difference between the left and right wings.
-Causes asymmetrical lift and drag between the outside and inside wing

171

What conditions must be present to enter an inverted spin?

Negative G stall and yaw introduced

172

What is the main aerodynamic factor affecting spins?

Conservation of angular momentum
-Lower pitch results in higher rotation rate

173

What causes an accelerated spin?

Spinning with the control stick anywhere other than full aft.
-Control stick aft, spin decelerates

174

In a right spin, which rudder position will provide the greatest anti-spin forces?

Full left rudder

175

How can a progressive spin be entered?

By maintaining full aft stick while applying and holding anti-spin rudder.
-Caused by maintaining full up elevator while holding anti-spin rudder
-Nose lowers and spin direction reverses

176

What are the factors which primarily affect the strength of vortices? (B/1/4)

Weight
Speed
Wing configuration

177

T or F? Pilots of small aircraft should avoid operating within 2 rotor diameters of a hovering helicopter due to downwash hazards. However, since a helicopter does not generate wake turbulence, normal spacing rules do not apply. (B/2/3)

FALSE

178

When taking off behind a heavy aircraft (over 255,000 pounds) established spacing requirements are ______ minute(s) minimum. This spacing is also encouraged behind large aircraft (41,000 to 255,000 pounds). (B/3/3)

2 minutes minimum

179

Minimum landing spacing requirement is ______ minute(s) behind a heavy aircraft (over 255,000 pounds). (B/3/6)

3 minutes

180

Wind shear is defined as a sudden change in wind ______ over a short distance in the atmosphere. (C/1/1)

speed and/or direction

181

A microburst will most likely be encountered in areas of heavy ______. (C/1/3)

rain

182

When viewed from behind the generating aircraft, wingtip vortices rotate ______ from the right wing and ______ from the left wing.

Counterclockwise from the right wing
Clockwise from the left wing

183

Wake turbulence is generated by what type of aircraft.

Any aircraft whenever it is producing lift.

184

When taking off behind a heavy aircraft in the T-6A, you should allow for a minimum spacing of ______ minute(s).

2 minutes

185

When taking off behind a heavy aircraft that has just landed, what should you do to minimize the effects of its wake turbulence?

Plan to lift off after its nose gear touchdown point

186

Key hazards created by wake turbulence are ______ and ______.

Induced roll
Induced flow field

187

T or F? The wake turbulence generated by a heavy aircraft taking off from a parallel or intersecting runway is not a factor for aircraft operating on another runway.

FALSE

188

How will a wind shear that decreases your headwind component by 20 knots affect your aircraft?

Indicated airspeed will decrease 20 knots
Lift will decrease

189

During an approach, you pass through a shear that changes the wind from a 10 knot tailwind to a 10 knot headwind. How will this shear affect your aircraft?

Indicated airspeed will increase by 20 knots, lift will increase, and aircraft will tend to climb above glidepath.

190

What wind changes would an aircraft initially encounter if flown through a microburst?

A strong headwind

191

An aircraft reported wind shear on final with a 10 knot loss of airspeed. How should you adjust your approach?

Set flaps to "Takeoff"
Add 10 knots to approach speed

192

What force opposes and controls the adverse pressure gradient? (B/1/1)

Kinetic energy of the relative wind

Adverse pressure gradient:
-Low pressure behind max point of thickness
-Creates turbulent flow

193

What is the definition of boundary layer separation? (B/1/2)

Point in streamline where airflow no longer adheres to the airfoil

194

What is the definition of a stall? (B/1/4)

Condition in flight where increase in AOA results in decrease in CL
-Point of stall : CL MAX

195

What is the key difference between an aircraft’s stall AOA and stall airspeed? (B/1/5)

Stall AOA remains constant
Stall airspeed is variable

196

What are the factors associated with increased thrust that impact stall characteristics? (B/1/7)

Vertical component of thrust and propeller acceleration factor.

197

Which flight control would you expect to be most effective during a stall/stall recovery? (B/1/8)

Rudder
-Stall progresses with loss of ailerons first, then elevator, then to the rudder
-Recovers with rudder first, then elevator, and then aileron

198

How do you think increased G loading will affect stall airspeed? (B/1/11)

Stall speed will increase
-Increasing G load is equivalent to increasing weight which also has a increased stall speed as weight increases

199

What is the T-6A stall AOA? (B/1/12)

18 units

200

What is the primary artificial stall warning in the T-6A? (B/1/13)

stick shaker

201

What does activation of the stick shaker indicate? (B/1/14)

Aircraft is approximately 5 to 10 knots above stall speed

202

Can an aircraft that is not stalled be in a spin? (B/2/1)

No, both stall and yaw must be present to be in a spin.
Stall + Yaw = Spin

203

If the aircraft is in a stall, what could happen if you misapply the controls or if the aircraft is out of trim? (B/2/2)

Aircraft could enter a spin

204

How does anti-spin rudder aid in recovery? (B/2/5)

Slows rotation and decreases AOA

205

Would an aircraft spinning with the stick other than full aft be in an accelerated or unaccelerated spin? (B/2/6)

Accelerated
-Anytime the aircraft is spinning with the stick other than full aft, the spin is accelerated.

206

Lower pitch attitude at stall results in higher stall airspeed (greater energy) which results in a ______ spin entry airspeed and ______ oscillations. (B/2/7)

Faster
Greater

-Higher pitch attitude = slower stall speed = slower entry with fewer oscillations
-Lower pitch attitude = higher stall speed = faster entry with more oscillations

207

Will a left or right spin entry stabilize at a lower pitch attitude? (B/2/8)

Right spin
-Due to gyroscopic precession (right hand rule)
-Stabilizes at lower pitch
-Stabilizes with more oscillation
-Rotation rate increased
Left spin has opposite characteristics

208

When does an aircraft produce wingtip vortices? (B/3/1)

Whenever it is producing lift

209

What three factors primarily affect vortex strength? (B/3/2)

Weight
Speed
Configuration

210

What are the two main hazards associated with wake turbulence? (B/3/3)

Induced roll
Induced flow field

211

Assume you are planning an approach with an airspeed of 110 KIAS when tower reports a 15 knot decreasing performance wind shear. What configuration should you use and what airspeed should you fly? (B/4/3)

Takeoff flaps
120 KIAS

Normal approach speed + predicted wind shear = adjusted approach speed (up to 10 knots above normal)

212

What is the definition of a stall?

Condition in flight where increase in AOA results in decrease in CL.

213

What are the two major classifications of stalls?

Power-on stall
Power-off stall

214

Which type of stall will have lower stall airspeed?

Power-on stall

215

What is the only reason the T-6A will stall?

Exceeds stall AOA
18 units

216

What two conditions must be present in order for an aircraft to spin?

Stall and Yaw

Stall + Yaw = Spin

217

What causes an accelerated spin?

Spinning with the control stick anywhere other than full aft.

218

In a right spin, which rudder position will provide the greatest anti-spin forces?

Full left rudder

219

When taking off behind a heavy aircraft in the T-6A, you should allow for a minimum spacing of ______ minute(s).

2 minutes

220

When landing behind a heavy aircraft that has just landed, what should you do to minimize the effects of its wake turbulence?

-Delay landing for 3 minutes
-Land beyond the landing aircraft's nose gear touchdown point

221

How will a wind shear that decreases your headwind component by 20 knots affect your aircraft?

-Indicated airspeed will decrease by 20 knots
-Lift will decrease

222

An aircraft reported wind shear on final with a 10 knot loss of airspeed. How should you adjust your approach and what things should you look out for?

-Set flaps to "takeoff"
-Add 10 knots to approach speed
-Be alert for the tendency to land long

223

Which type of stall will have lower stall airspeed? (B/1/6)

Power-on stall

224

During a spin, what will happen if the ailerons are deflected in spin direction? (B/2/4)

Roll and yaw will become more oscillatory

225

Which aircraft will enter a spin slower, with less oscillation, and take longer to recover?

5400 pound aircraft
6000 pound aircraft

6000 pound aircraft