Flashcards in Table Conference 2: Syllabi Questions, Answered Deck (81):
what are plural cavities
potential space between visceral and parietal pleurae, filled with serous fluid; can fill with air/blood
where do pleural tap?
what is "root" of lung?
hilum; where arteries, bronchi, veins are
nerve providing preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to lungs?
what in white ramus communicans?
preganglionic sympathetic GVE fibers- myelinated
root value of greater splanchnic nerve
primary fiber type in greater splanchnic?
other fiber type in greater splanchninc?
GVE and GVA
arteries that supply lungs with oxygenated blood?
bronchial arteries, from thoracic aorta
function of azygos system of veins?
anastomosis between SVC and IVC; drains intercostal veins
left recurrent laryngeal comes off of?
which main bronchus has more vertical path to lung?
right, things will go into right side if aspirated
segments of lungs corresponding to parts of bronchi
why are arteries "coronary"? arteries and veins "cardiac" veins?
coronary- because go around crown of heart
cardiac- because on heart itself
path of blood flow through heart in late term fetus?
svc/ivc > right atrium > foramen ovales > left atrium > left ventricle > aorta
shunts blood from pulmonary artery to aorta in fetus
blood flow through heart in an adult
svc/ivc > right atrium > tricuspid valve > right ventricle > pulmonary valve > pulmonary arteries > lungs > pulmonary veins > left atrium > mitral valve > left ventricle > aortic valve > aorta
What structure is prominent in the anterior part of the superior mediastinum in an infant but only remains as a fatty mass in an adult?
right vs left main bronchi?
right is more vertical, shorter, bigger, and has 10 segments, left is more horizontal, taller, smaller, has 9 segments
What and where is the "carina"?
where trachea bifurcates into left and right bronchi; at sternal angle, T4-T5
"primary" type of nerve fiber that you will find in the vagus nerve in the middle of the thorax?
what is anterior, trachea or esophagus?
type of muscle fiber comprises the distal portion of the esophagus?
What nerve will innervate the esophagus?
What type of nerve fiber would innervate the esophagus?
GSE proximally, GVE distally
What forms the posterior aspect of tracheal rings?
What are the different "splanchnic" nerves?
greater, lesser, least, lumbar- pelvic splanchnics, of sympathetic division of ANS
root values of splancnics?
what fiber types are in splancnic nerves?
GVE primarily, also GVA; not GSE or GSA because not skeletal muscle
what is right coronary artery dominance?
dominance is which coronary artery gives rise to posterior interventricular artery
what is an "end" artery?
why are coronary arteries "functional" end arteries?
do have some anastomoses but not enough to do collateral circulation
when do coronary arteries fill with blood?
diastole because valves are away from sinuses of aortic semilunar valves
usual area of "referred pain" from the heart?
left arm, left jaw; T1-5, C2-3
what comprises conduction system of the heart?
cell depolarization; SA node; AV node by inter antrial septum by bundle of His; perkinje fibers
what and where is fossa ovalis? what was it embryologically?
between R and L atria; it is oval shape; was foramen ovale which shunted blood from R atrium to L atrium without going through pulmonary system
which valves work via pressure differences, which via muscular actions?
pressure: aortic, pulmonary (semilunar)
muscular: tricuspid, mitral (atrio-ventricular)
what makes A-V flaps move?
cordae tendinae with papillary muscles
where is moderator band?
role of greater omentum?
provides fatty apron over abdominal viscera, organs; contains infections in viscera from spreading; promotes healing, supports/protects from ulcers
structures of portal triad
bile duct, hepatic artery proper, portal vein
develops within mesentery
developed behind mesentery, stayed there
developed within mesentery but migrated out - adheres to posterior peritoneal wall
developed outside of mesentery (bladder)
primarily retroperitoneal mnemonic
kids and infants are tiny
kidney, aorta, ivc, adrenal glands, testes
secondarily retroperitoneal mnemonic
AC/DC rockers can party down
ascending colon, descending colon, rectum, cecum, pancreas, duodenal root
bladder, seminal vesicles, ovary, uterus, prostate
alimentary tract, proximal to distal
mouth, esophagus, cardiac sphincter, stomach, pyloric sphincter, duodenum (4 parts), jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus
subdivisions of the "small" intestine?
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
parts of small intestine that are intra/retroperitoneal?
2nd-4th parts of duodenum are secondarily retroperitoneal; rest is intraperitoneal
subdivisions of the "large" intestine?
cecum, ascending colon, descending colon, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, rectum
large intestine re: peritoneum?
intraperitoneal: transverse, sigmoid
secondarily retro: cecum, ascending, descending
what is a mesentery?
double layer of parietal peritoneum
what is THE mesentery
connects the small intestine
areas by ascending and descending colons, can collect fluid there
early appendicitis pain?
belly button because T10 sympathetics refer pain there
touching visceral, not parietal peritoneum
"bare area" of the liver?
no peritoneum; top right part on diaphragmatic/posterior surface
what are coronary ligaments?
on crown of liver, diaphragmatic surface
route of bile passage
bile made in liver > hepatic duct > common bile duct when joins cystic duct > duodenum or back through cystic duct to gall bladder for storage
nerve carrying preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the gallbladder?
Why is it often said that the liver can be divided into segments similar to those of the lung? What is meant by this?
porta hepatis is like hilum; right, left, caudate and quadrate lobes are like the inferior, middle, superior lobes
ligaments of liver
falciform, ligamentum venosum
autonomic innervation of abomdinal viscera
parasymp: vagus til left colic flexure, then S2-S4 pelvic splancnics
symp: greater, lesser, least, lumbar
biliary colic felt where?
T5-9 - foregut - greater splancnic
3 unpaired vessels off abdominal aorta
celiac, SMA, IMA
branches off abdominal aorta besides the 3 unpaired vessels
renals, medial suprarenals, inferior phrenics, testicular/ovarian, lumbars (1-4)
What vertebral levels do the major abdominal aortic branches correspond to?
are arteriae rectae
jejunum has more than ileum
why important that IVC is dorsal to portal vein?
if have portal hypertension, and hemorrhaging blood in esophagus, can hook up portal vein to IVC and alleviate esophageal problem but then get toxins in blood because liver isn't filtering anything
short circuit portal system, take it out of hepatic system
main tributaries of portal vein?
superior mesenteric vein > splenic vein
inferior mesenteric vein > splenic vein, although sometimes > superior mesenteric vein
portal vs hepatic vein?
portal: takes blood from GI tract > liver for filtration
hepatic: takes blood from liver that is detoxified > IVC > heart
left superior mesenteric artery hooks around left renal vein
left vs right renal vein
left is larger than right
What nerve carries pre-ganglionic parasympathetics to the stomach, liver, gall bladder?