What offers the basics of animal protection ethics?
Biology and Veterinary Medicine
Define 'Animal Welfare'?
An effort for a possible optimum in well-being, preventing pain and suffering, a claim by humans.
Data from the science of animal protection aims to make the discussion...
What is animal protection dependent on?
Society and Politics
Pain and suffering can be concluded with...
Indicators and wisely designed experiments
Background music may...
Increase Milk Production
- Mice, Rats Guinea Pigs (Bach-Effect)
- Shelter dogs, Horses
Habituation to various noises may...
Prevent Shock (In rats and Chicks)
What music is effective for bioacustics?
Recurrent withing 1 minute
How can musical bioacoustics be measured?
EEG, fMRI, NIRS
What are the short/longterm effects of bioacoustics?
Gene expression in the brain
What was observed with the behaviour of chimpanzees to music?
A significan positive effect
Less aggressive and excitable behaviour
List the 5 freedoms
Animals kept under intensive livestock husbandry are free:
- From hunger and Thirst
- From discomfort
- From pain, Injury or disease
- To express normal behaviour
- From fear and distress
Instinct can be summised that
Simple stiumuli trigger a fixed behaviour
Give the 5 forms of learning
- Insight Learning
- Observational Learning
- Associative Learning:
(Classic Conditioning, Operant Contditioning, Latent Learning)
Exploratory behaviour requires...
Evidence of animals with conciousness are...
Observed retrieving and manipulating coconut shells to use as a shell.
What evidence was used to prove self-awareness in dogs?
Sniff test of self-recognition (STSR)
Give a situation that may lead to populations developing social groups
When resources are distributed in a way that supports group living
Peck order is observed in...
Courtship is a type of...
Fixed Action Pattern
What is resource holding potential (RHP)?
The ability to defend resources:
- Mating opportunities
Give the diagram of the Hawk-Dove model
V = Fitness Value
C = Costs
What is territoriality?
Animals defend territories:
- When it is economically advantageous
- During self-protection against conspecifics
This doesn't happen if this isn't the case
Give the 6 types of communication
Give two examples of Altruism
- An individual giving an alarm signal is always in bigger danger than the conspecifics
- Sterile Males in a Termite Tower
What is Hamilton's Rule, what does it mean?
r B > C
Altruism can occur via natural selection
What is pain?
Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with tissue damage
Describe the reflex response to painful stimuli
Fixed action pattern:
Along spinal cord to brain, body then gives a return signal
What occired in Weiss' rat trials?
Rat 1: Light was presented to rats followed by an electric shock
Rat 2: As above only without a clear relationship between the light and shock
Rat 1 could turn a wheel to turn the shock off
What is Corticothalamic 'Blunting'?
Release of endorphines during excited emotional states and severe tissue damage
What are the sources of painful stimuli?
Hunger and Thirst
Surgery and Experimental Procedures
Give an evaluation of discomfort and pain
Based on analogy
Differences between species
Behviour analysis assists the evaluation
Main paramters are: Behaviour, Physiology and Pathology
Give the Facial Action Units (FAU) for the Grimace Scale
Give the 63/2010 EU Pain Categories
0: None (Less than an injection)
1: Mild or Light
2: Moderate or Medium
3: Substantial or Severe
4: With aesthesia and oversleeping
What was banned in the EU in 2012?
The conventional battery cage
What is 'Cruelty to animals'?
Infliction by humans of suffering or harm
What is zoophilia?
Sexual fixation on non-human animals
What is the alternative to the 'fight or flight' response
(Not appropriate for gestant and suckling females)
Tend and Befriend
What are the effects of cortisol?
Blood glucose production
Maintenance of brain integrity
What is the vicious cycle of stress?
(If chronic) cortisol feedback →
More CRH produced
What are the main sources of distress under human control?
Give examples of environmental enrichment
(These are requirements)
What is an ethogram?
A catalogue or table of all the different kinds of behaviour or activity observed in an animal.
E.g Nest building, grooming
Calhoun's classic trials measured...
The effect of crowdedness on the social behaviour of animals
Give practical uses of pheromones
Boar Spray: Synchronise virgin gilts
Antidepressant dog spray
Relaxant Cat spray
What is intensive farming?
Production in order to maximise production output while minimising production costs
What are the Cons of intensive farming?
No normal behaviour
Limited space to move
Stress and frustration develop, causing aggressiveness and fear
Give brief historical keystones of intensive/factory farming
Vaccines used to reduce disease
Genetic manipulation: Cheaper production
A breeding sow is seen as...instead of a living animal
Broiler farms slaughter animals between...
Broiler birds have disturbed...
Fast muscle and fat growth of broilers can lead to...
Skeletal deformations and diseases
Male birds in the egg industry are killed by...
Smashing, Gasification or suffocation
How can you avoid feather pecking?
Feeding, occupation, dimmed light
Give the animal welfare aspects of Pig fattening
High piglet mortality rate
Cannibalism/ tail docking
Castration without analgesia
Disturbed natural behaviour
Give the animal welfare aspects on breeding sows
Disturbed and limited natural behaviour
Wounds from crates and bites in group keeping
lameness, damage of joints/hoofs
Give the animal welfare aspects on beef cattle
High population density
Steroids in the US
Give the animal welfare aspects of aquaculture
Endangered natural flora and fauna
What does IMTA stand for?
Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture
Give the animal welfare aspects on transportation
Max 28 hours without stopping
Heat and cold stress
Poor access to water/feed
Give the animal welfare aspects on Slaughter
High stress level
Give four obligatory rules for farming
'The real difference between humans and other animals is that humans alone have a perception of good and evil' was an opinion of...
'Martin's Act' passed into British law in...
What is 'ultima ratio' in the criminal law?
Principle of criminalisation at a last resort
In the last decade, the world meat production has been...
'Speciesism' is a theory by...
What is Anthropomorphising?
Attributing human characteristics to Animals
According to McInerney, the highest level of productivity is at the point of...
What is externality?
Which doesn't refer to the ongoing mass extinction?
- Holocene Extinction
- Anthropocene Extinction
- Sixth Extinction
- Seventh Extinction
According to McInerney, the highest level of animal welfare is at the point of...
Greatest Animal Benefit
Legal personality means...
Being capable of holding legal rights and obligations
According to the G.A.P movements, some kind of human rights should be given to...
Chimpanzee, Bonobo, Orangutang, Gorilla
When and where did the World's first legislation that grant legal personhood rights to all great apes get passed?
Balearic Islands 2007
What are the 3-4 R's?
What are the three L's?
What are the sustainable 3 E's?
Economy, Environment, Ethics