Take Home Messages Flashcards Preview

Animal Welfare > Take Home Messages > Flashcards

Flashcards in Take Home Messages Deck (79)
Loading flashcards...
1

What offers the basics of animal protection ethics?

Biology and Veterinary Medicine

2

Define 'Animal Welfare'?

An effort for a possible optimum in well-being, preventing pain and suffering, a claim by humans.

3

Data from the science of animal protection aims to make the discussion...

more professional.

4

What is animal protection dependent on?

Society and Politics

5

Pain and suffering can be concluded with...

Indicators and wisely designed experiments

6

Background music may...

Increase Milk Production

Calm Animals:

  • Mice, Rats Guinea Pigs (Bach-Effect)
  • Shelter dogs, Horses

7

Habituation to various noises may...

Prevent Shock (In rats and Chicks)

8

What music is effective for bioacustics?

1-60 bpm

Recurrent withing 1 minute

Bach-Mozart

9

How can musical bioacoustics be measured?

EEG, fMRI, NIRS

10

What are the short/longterm effects of bioacoustics?

Memory performance

Learning

Epilepsy

Gene expression in the brain

11

What was observed with the behaviour of chimpanzees to music?

A significan positive effect

Less aggressive and excitable behaviour

12

List the 5 freedoms

Animals kept under intensive livestock husbandry are free:

  1.  From hunger and Thirst
  2. From discomfort
  3. From pain, Injury or disease
  4. To express normal behaviour
  5. From fear and distress

13

Instinct can be summised that

Simple stiumuli trigger a fixed behaviour

e.g Hunger

14

Give the 5 forms of learning

  1. Habituation
  2. Imprinting
  3. Insight Learning
  4. Observational Learning
  5. Associative Learning:

(Classic Conditioning, Operant Contditioning, Latent Learning)

15

Exploratory behaviour requires...

Environmental Enrichment

16

Evidence of animals with conciousness are...

The octopus

Observed retrieving and manipulating coconut shells to use as a shell.

17

What evidence was used to prove self-awareness in dogs?

Sniff test of self-recognition (STSR)

 

18

Give a situation that may lead to populations developing social groups

When resources are distributed in a way that supports group living

19

Peck order is observed in...

Birds

Wolves

Baboons

20

Courtship is a type of...

Fixed Action Pattern

21

What is resource holding potential (RHP)?

The ability to defend resources:

  • Mating opportunities
  • Territories

22

Give the diagram of the Hawk-Dove model

V = Fitness Value

C = Costs

23

What is territoriality?

Animals defend territories:

  • When it is economically advantageous
  • During self-protection against conspecifics

This doesn't happen if this isn't the case

24

Give the 6 types of communication

  1. Language
  2. Optic
  3. Chemical
  4. Acoustic
  5. Tactile
  6. Electric

25

Give two examples of Altruism

  • An individual giving an alarm signal is always in bigger danger than the conspecifics
  • Sterile Males in a Termite Tower

26

What is Hamilton's Rule, what does it mean?

r B > C

Altruism can occur via natural selection

27

What is pain?

Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with tissue damage

28

Describe the reflex response to painful stimuli

Fixed action pattern:

Along spinal cord to brain, body then gives a return signal

29

What occired in Weiss' rat trials?

Rat 1: Light was presented to rats followed by an electric shock

Rat 2: As above only without a clear relationship between the light and shock

 

Rat 1 could turn a wheel to turn the shock off

30

What is Corticothalamic 'Blunting'?

Release of endorphines during excited emotional states and severe tissue damage

Analgesic effect

31

What are the sources of painful stimuli?

Hunger and Thirst

Parasites

Slaughering

Chronic Illness

Surgery and Experimental Procedures

32

Give an evaluation of discomfort and pain

Based on analogy

Differences between species

Behviour analysis assists the evaluation

Main paramters are: Behaviour, Physiology and Pathology

33

Give the Facial Action Units (FAU) for the Grimace Scale

Orbital Tightening

Nose Bulge

Cheek Bulge

Ear Position

Whisker Change

34

Give the 63/2010 EU Pain Categories

0: None (Less than an injection)

1: Mild or Light

2: Moderate or Medium

3: Substantial or Severe

4: With aesthesia and oversleeping

35

What was banned in the EU in 2012?

The conventional battery cage

36

What is 'Cruelty to animals'?

Infliction by humans of suffering or harm

37

What is zoophilia?

Sexual fixation on non-human animals

 

38

What is the alternative to the 'fight or flight' response

(Not appropriate for gestant and suckling females)

Tend and Befriend

39

What are the effects of cortisol?

Blood glucose production

Maintenance of brain integrity

Milk production

40

What is the vicious cycle of stress?

Threat →

 Fight-or-Flight →

(If chronic) cortisol feedback →

More CRH produced

41

What are the main sources of distress under human control?

Feeding

Keeping

Housing Conditions

Social Environment

Unsocial environment

Ventilation (Ammonia)

42

Give examples of environmental enrichment

Feed

Social Environment

Sensory Stimuli

Movement

Hiding possibility

Physical Space

Toy

(These are requirements)

43

What is an ethogram?

A catalogue or table of all the different kinds of behaviour or activity observed in an animal.

E.g Nest building, grooming

44

Calhoun's classic trials measured...

The effect of crowdedness on the social behaviour of animals

45

Give practical uses of pheromones

Boar Spray: Synchronise virgin gilts

Antidepressant dog spray

Relaxant Cat spray

46

What is intensive farming?

Production in order to maximise production output while minimising production costs

47

What are the Cons of intensive farming?

No normal behaviour

Limited space to move

No stimuli

Stress and frustration develop, causing aggressiveness and fear

48

Give brief historical keystones of intensive/factory farming

Vaccines used to reduce disease

Genetic manipulation: Cheaper production

49

A breeding sow is seen as...instead of a living animal

Space

50

Broiler farms slaughter animals between...

5-7 weeks

51

Broiler birds have disturbed...

Light/dark cycles

52

Fast muscle and fat growth of broilers can lead to...

Skeletal deformations and diseases

53

Male birds in the egg industry are killed by...

Smashing, Gasification or suffocation

54

How can you avoid feather pecking?

Feeding, occupation, dimmed light

55

Give the animal welfare aspects of Pig fattening

High piglet mortality rate

Cannibalism/ tail docking

Castration without analgesia

Disturbed natural behaviour

56

Give the animal welfare aspects on breeding sows

Disturbed and limited natural behaviour

Wounds from crates and bites in group keeping

lameness, damage of joints/hoofs

57

Give the animal welfare aspects on beef cattle

High population density

Heirarchy fights

Dehorning

Tail necrosis

Steroids in the US

58

Give the animal welfare aspects of aquaculture

Parasitosis

Endangered natural flora and fauna

59

What does IMTA stand for?

Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture

60

Give the animal welfare aspects on transportation

Max 28 hours without stopping

Heat and cold stress

Poor access to water/feed

Vehicle Overloading

61

Give the animal welfare aspects on Slaughter

Imperfect Stunning

High stress level

Problematic Staff

Overloading

62

Give four obligatory rules for farming

No Battery

No Crates

No Dehorning

No Debeaking

63

'The real difference between humans and other animals is that humans alone have a perception of good and evil' was an opinion of...

Aristotle

64

'Martin's Act' passed into British law in...

1822

65

What is 'ultima ratio' in the criminal law?

Principle of criminalisation at a last resort

66

In the last decade, the world meat production has been...

Increasing

67

'Speciesism' is a theory by...

Singer

68

What is Anthropomorphising?

Attributing human characteristics to Animals

69

According to McInerney, the highest level of productivity is at the point of...

Minimum Welfare

70

What is externality?

Unintentional Influence

71

Which doesn't refer to the ongoing mass extinction?

  1. Holocene Extinction
  2. Anthropocene Extinction
  3. Sixth Extinction
  4. Seventh Extinction

Seventh Extinction

72

According to McInerney, the highest level of animal welfare is at the point of...

Greatest Animal Benefit

73

Legal personality means...

Being capable of holding legal rights and obligations

74

According to the G.A.P movements, some kind of human rights should be given to...

Chimpanzee, Bonobo, Orangutang, Gorilla

75

When and where did the World's first legislation that grant legal personhood rights to all great apes get passed?

Balearic Islands 2007

76

What are the 3-4 R's?

Reduction

Replacement

Refinement

Rehabilitation

77

What are the three L's?

Live

Love

Laugh

78

What are the sustainable 3 E's?

Economy, Environment, Ethics

79