Flashcards in Taxonomy, characterisitics and compounds of life Deck (76):
What is taxonomy?
The branch of science that deals with the classification of organisms.
Why is a classification system useful to a scientist?
There are so many organisms it really helps to find them based on similarity using taxonomy.
What are the 8 levels of taxonomy?
Which levels of taxonomy or more inclusive and which ones contain more specific information?
Domains are most inclusive and most general, and species have the most specific information.
What kingdoms were in Linneaus' system and which were added?
Linneaus: Animals, Plants,
Added: Protista, Fungi, Archaebacteria, Eubacteria
Which kingdoms are prokaryotic and eukaryotic?
Prokaryotic: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
Eukaryotic: Animalia, Plantae, Protista, fungi
What are the major characteristics of a prokaryotic cell?
What are the major characteristics of a eukaryotic cell?
•nucleus with DNA
•many membrane bound organelles
•larger in size
What does it mean to be unicellular and what are three unicellular organisms?
An organisms composed of one cell. Paramecium, Euglena, Amoeba
What does it mean to be colonial and what are examples of colonial cells?
Cells that live in colonies that could live on their own. Organisms in colonies or volvox, bacteria, and algea
What does it mean to be multicellular and what are some examples?
Groups of similar cells that perform a specific function. Examples are muscle, bone, and nerve cells.
What are the order of groups of cells?
What is a heterotroph?
An organism that obtains their food or nutrition from their environment
What is absorption?
(fungi) An organism realeases enzymes out of their body, digest it outside their body, then absorb the nutrients into their body.
What is ingestion?
When and organism takes food into their bodies and digests it.
What is an autotroph?
Organisms thay make their own food
What does photosynthetic mean?
When autotrophs use sunlight, H20, and C02 to make organic compounds (sugar/carbs) for food.
What does chemosynthetic mean?
When organisms use compounds other than sunlight to make their own energy and food.
What is biology?
The study of life.
What are the nine life processes?
What are the 9 characteristics of life?
1. Life is based on organic chemistry. Ever living thing is made up of carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
2. Every living thing is composed of one or more cells
3. All living things us energy
4. All living things have different forms and size ranges
5. All living things grow
6. All living things have their own life span
7. All living things respond to their environment
8. All organisms reproduce for the survival of their species
9. All living thing adapt and evolve over time
What is ingestion?
Taking in food from your environment.
What is digestion?
Breaking down food that you ingested.
How are breathing and respiration different?
Breathing is taking in air and respiration is releasing the chemical energy.
What is assimilation?
The incorporation of digested materials into an organisms body.
What is synthesis?
When organisms are able to combine simple substances chemically to form more complex substances.
What is nutrition?
Organisms taking stuff from their environment and making it into forms they can use.
What is transport?
The process in which substances enter and leave and become distributed within cells.
What is respiration?
The process of releasing chemical energy.
What is growth?
The process in which organisms increase in size.
What is excretion?
The removal of wastes from an organism.
What is regulation?
All activities that help an organism maintain its homeostasis.
What is reproduction?
The process in which living thing produce more organisms if their own kind.
What is a polar molecule?
One end of the molecule is partially negative and one and is partially positively charged.
What is cohesion?
The charge on the end of one molecule attracting to the end of another charged molecule.
What is adhesion?
The attraction of the molecules of one substance to the molecules of another substance.
What is capillary action?
The adhesion of molecules that makes them stick together.
Why do organic compounds tend to be more complex than inorganic compounds?
All organic compounds contain carbon which tends to form alot of bonds with other molecules.
What are the 4 major types of organic compounds found in living cells?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids.
What are carbohydrates?
Compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They have a ratio of C:H:O 1:2:1
What are the simplest carbohydrates like/made of?
The simplest carbohydrates are simple sugars or monosaccharides. The names of them end in "ose".
What is dehydration synthesis?
Bonding sugar molecules together by removing water.
What is a disaccharide?
A molecule formed by putting two monosaccharides or simple sugars together.
What is a polysaccharide?
Several simple sugars bonded together by dehydration synthesis.
What is a polymer?
Large molecules consisting of chains of repeating units.
What is a starch?
Excess sugar stored in the form of polysaccharides in plants.
What is hydrolosis?
Water reacting with disaccharides and polysaccharides to break them apart.
What is a lipid?
Include fats, oils, and waxes. They are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are a reserve energy supply for an organism.
What are fats?
A type of lipid that animals store under their skin and is liquid at room temperature.
What are oils?
A type of lipid that is liquid at room temperature and plants store them in their seeds.
How are waxes formed?
A combination of fatty acids and compounds similar to glycerol.
How are fats and oils formed?
1 molecule of fat as made with 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol.
What is a fatty acid?
A molecule with 2 parts. A chain of carbon atoms to which hydrogen atoms are bonded and a carboxyl group.
What is a carboxyl group?
A group that consists of 1 carbon atom that is bonded to 1 oxygen atom by a double bond and to an OH group.
What is a glycerol?
A simple 3 carbon chain with an OH grouo bonded to each carbon.
What are nucleic acids?
Compounds that contain phosphorus and nitrogen and addition to carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
What are the two types of nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA.
Where are nucleic acids found?
What is DNA?
The hereditary material that is passed on from one generation to the next during reproduction.
What is the structure of DNA?
A long chain of repeating units called nucleotides.
What are nucleotides?
A molecule that consists of a 5 carbon sugar and a nitrogenous base.
What are the 4 nitrogenous bases found in DNA?
Adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine.
Which nitrogenous bases are always bonded together?
Adenine is always bonded to thymine and cytosine and always bonded to guanine.
What is a double helix?
The shape of a DNA particle. A chain with "ladder rungs" consisting of 2 nitrogenous bases on each.
What is RNA?
It is similar in chemical composition to DNA, its molecules are only chain chain or strand. The sugar is ribose, not deoxyribose, and thymine is replaced by uracil.
What are proteins?
Compounds that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Some also contain sulfur and phosphorus.
What are Amino Acids?
A simple compound that is the structural unit of protein. They are 1 carbon atom bonded to 1 carboxyl group, 1 amino group, 1 hydrogen atom, and one side chain.
What is a peptide bond?
The bond of 2 proteins. Tbe carboxyl group bonds with the amino group of another protein.
What is a dipeptide?
The resulting molecule of a peptide bond.
What do enzymes do in living cells?
They are proteins that cause chemic reactions to occur in living cells.
What do coenzymes do in living cells?
A substance that is not a protein that allows an enzyme to perform its catalyc function.
How does temperature affect enzymes?
There is a temperature which certain enzymes work optimally. If the temperature is too low then the enzymes will be slow. If it is too high then the enzymes can change shape and become denaturized.
How does pH affect an enzyme?
There is an optimal pH for each enzyme to work at its best.
How do certain concentrations of enzyme and substrate affect the enzyme?
Reaction happen quicker when an equal amount of enzymes and substrates react at a high rate.
What is an example of a type of organism in each kingdom?
Archaebacteria and Eubacteria: Bacteria
Protista: Protozoa and algae
Fungi: Fungus, mold, mushrooms