tc3. respiratory tract, lung, eye and ear Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in tc3. respiratory tract, lung, eye and ear Deck (40):
1

what virus causes Cowdry type B nuclear inclusion bodies and is commonly spread by inadequately chlorinated swimming pools?
.
classic vignette: bunch of kids at summer camp after going swimming get pharyngitis w/ nonpurulent conjunctivitis. or just pink eye without pharyngitis

Adenovirus

2

what are the 3 virulence factors of influenza, their functions, and which one is targeted by neutralizing antibody?

1. Hemagglutinin (H) - binds virus to sialic acid on the cell
2. Neuraminidase (N) - sialidase. cleaves H from silaic acid to release virus during budding. also breaks apart mucus so virus can access tissue in resp. tract
3. M2- becomes proton channel in host cell bilayer -> acidify endosome -> promote viral uncoating after endocytosis

3

person comes in with cervical lymphadenopathy + fever + sore throat.
on exam you see a thick white membrane in their throat, edema + bull neck
on their skin is nonhealing ulcer with gray membrane
.
what is the bacteria and what toxin does it have?
.
what color is it on tellurite medium?

corynebacterium diphtheriae
diphtheria toxin is a ADP ribosyl transferase -> target eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (EF-2) -> inhibits protein synthesis
.
turns medium brown-black

4

which viruses have syncitia/multinucleated giant cells?

paramyxovirus (mumps, parainfluenza, RSV)
Herpesviridae (EBV, CMV, HSV)

5

what causes coup and what are the symptoms?

parainfluenza virus
symptoms are the 3 S's:
1. subglottal swelling
2. stridor
3. seal bark cough

6

pertussis works mainly by increasing what molecule/messenger

increase cAMP

7

what grows on agar containing nicotinic acid, charcoal, and starch?


bordatella pertussis

8

kid has tripod posture, NO COUGH, drooling, cherry red epiglottis, dysphagia. diagnosis and what bacteria?

epiglottitis from haemophilus influenza type b (it's the only one that causes epiglottitis)

9

otitis media + conjunctivitis pink eye =??

haemophilus influenzae

10

what causes hemorrhagic conjunctivitis?

picornaviridae: coxsackie and enterovirus

11

what has IgA protease, Pili (antigenic variation), Protein I (a porin) and LOS as its toxins?

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

12

unvaccinated children, especially <5 years, and adults >65 yrs are at greater risk to get pneumonia from what gram negative bacteria?

haemophilus influenzae

13

staph aureus causes necrotizing pneumonia, with what toxins? (3)

protein A bind to wrong end of IgG -> evade immune system
alpha toxin and Panton-valentine Leukocidin -> necrotizing pneumonia

14

so many trigger words:
hospital equipment contaminated
infects ppl w/ underlying pulmonary dz and alcoholism
very large polysaccharide capsule (know picture!)
lobar pneumonia (entire lobe)
currant jelly sputum (thick, bloody)
WHAT IS IT

Klebsiella pneumoniae
.
note: strep pneumoniae is the other common cause of lobar pneumonia

15

what bacteria especially infects cystic fibrosis patients? and can cause malignant otitis externa

pseudomonas aeruginosa

16

looks like train tracks (know picture)
poly-D-glutamate capsule
protective antigen -> binds to lethal factor and edema factor
lethal factor = metalloprotease -> degrades MAP kinase
edema factor = adenylate cylase -> increase cAMP

bacillus anthracis -> anthrax
.
causes hemorrhagic pleural effusions and widened mediastinum

17

looks like safety pin,
bloody sputum
hella virulance factors. yops, etc.

yersinia pestis -> pneumonic plague

18

partial acid fast
forms filaments (see picture)
causes pulmonary coardiosis which is kind of like TB but is not contagious
infects pts with low WBC/CD4+ count

Nocardia

19

which 2 are kidney shaped

neisseria, moraxella catarrhalis

20

looks like fried eggs
P1 protein -> adheres
causes bronchopneumonia ages 5-15 yrs old
school and military barrack outbreaks
dry hacking cough for weeks

mycoplasma pneumoniae

21

looks like fried eggs
P1 protein -> adherence protein
causes bronchopneumonia ages 5-15 yrs old
school and military barrack outbreaks
dry hacking cough for weeks
resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics

mycoplasma pneumoniae

22

found in amebae in streams or any water tanks
grows in phagosome
either multifocal necrotizing pneumonia with DIARRHEA or pontiac fever (inhaled)
grows on: buffered charcoal yeast extract medium with cysteine and iron
silver stain

legionella pneumophila

23

q fever
penumonia + hepatitis

coxiella burnetii

24

necrotizing lung abscesses are caused by anaerobic bacteria _____, ____, and _____, mixed with other bacteria like ____, ____ and ____
.
occurs in patients w/ periodontal disease, or who aspirate. so alcoholism, seizures, or anesthesia

anaerobic: fusobacterium, bacteroides, peptostreptococcus
.
others: staph aureus, K. pneumoniae, and mycobacteria

25

necrotizing lung abscesses are caused by anaerobic bacteria _____, ____, and _____, mixed with other bacteria like ____, ____ and ____
.
occurs in patients w/ periodontal disease, or who aspirate. so alcoholism, seizures, or anesthesia

anaerobic: fusobacterium, bacteroides, peptostreptococcus
.
others: staph aureus, K. pneumoniae, and mycobacteria

26

middle east
exposure to bats
pneumonia

MERS- coronavirus

27

mostly kids under 2 years of age
peaks at 2 months of age
necrotic interstitial pneumonia
fusion glycoprotein -> induces cell syncytia

respiratory syncytial virus RSV
.
btw staph aureus pneumonia also peaks in that age group

28

hantavirus pulmonary syndrome -> starts with fever and chills -> death within 1-2 days from respiratory failure
.
what animal is reservoir?

deer mice

29

fungus, INSIDE CELL*
after caving (bats) or cleaning out chicken coop (birds)
pneumonia with hilar or mediastinal lymphadenopathy w/ calicified lesions*
oral or genital or skin lesions

histoplasma capsulatum

30

found in sand in dessert-y places
causes Valley fever (pneumonia +erythema nodosum)
can disseminate, especially in racial minorities or late pregnancy -> skin lesions that mimic squamous cell carcinoma

coccidoides immitis

31

Broad Based Budding yeast with a Big thick wall
inhale -> pneumonia ->disseminate ->skin lesions that mimic squamous cell carcinoma

blastomyces dermatitidis

32

hyphae that branch at acute angles
inhaled airborne conidia
allergic bronchopulmonary _____ = high igE levels, cough up brown mucus plugs and blood
farmer's lung

aspergillus fumigatus

33

pigeons
india ink
pneumonia
AIDS

cryptococcus neoformans

34

cord factor (know picture)
sulfolipids inhibit phagosome lysosome fusion
Ghon complex (granulomas + hilar lymphadenopathy)
can cause errthing: primary TB, 2ndry TB, cavitary TB, miliary TB

mycobacterium tuberculosis

35

posterior lymphadenopathy is _____ caused by _____
.
anterior lymph is _____ caused by _______

posterior = mono = herpeviridae (ebv, cmv)
anterior = strep throat = s. pyogenes

36

scarlet fever (fever + sandpapery rash + strawberry tongue)
acute glomerulonephritis
rheumatic fever

strep pyogenes

obviously it also causes strep throat

37

dog tapeworm
hydatid cysts surrounded by fibrous capsule

echinococcus granulosus
.
note: echinococcus multilocularis is multilocular version, the budding can look like alveoli. can disseminate

38

the 3 ones with ADP ribosylase aka AB toxin

1. aruginosa
2. diphtheria
3. pertussis (but this one is a little different. the first 2 are most similar to each other)

39

the bite of what animal gives humans onchocerca volvulus? what does it cause?

blackfly -> river blindless
skin involvement + microfilariae in eye

40

CSF shows spiky/wrinkled trophozoites in an immunocompromised patient. what is it and what does it cause?

acanthamoeba. can get from contaminated contact soln
keratitis of eye