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Flashcards in Tectonics Deck (30):
1

Seismic wave

A vibration that travels through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake

2

Pressure

The amount of force pushing on a surface or area

3

Crust

The layer of rock that form’s Earth’s outer surface

4

Mantle

The layer of hot, solid material between Earth’s crust and core

5

Lithosphere

A rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust

6

Asthenosphere

The soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats

7

Outer Core

The layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth

8

Heat Transfer

The movement of energy from a warmer object to a cooler one

9

Convection

The transfer of heat energy by the movement of a fluid

10

Inner core

A dense spere of solid iron and nickel in the center of the earth

11

Conduction

The transfer of heat energy from one substance to another by direct contact of matter

12

Radiation

The direct transfers of heat energy through empty space by EM waves

13

EM

Electromagnetic

14

Density

The amount of mass in a given volume

15

Convection current

The movement of a fluid, caused by different temperatures, that transfer heat energy from one part of fluid to another

16

Panagea

Name if single land mass that broke apart 225 million years ago and gave rise to today’s continents

17

Continental drift

The hypothesis that continents slowly move across Earth’s surface

18

Fossil

Preserved remains of traces of living things

19

Mid-Ocean Range

Undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced

20

Sonar

System that determines the distance of an object Underwater by recording echoes of sound waves

21

Sea-Floor Spreading

Process by which molten materials adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor

22

Deep ocean Trench

A deep valley along the ocean floor through which oceanic crust slowly sinks towards the mantle

23

Subduction

Process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and back into the mantle

24

Plate

Section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere carrying pieces of oceanic and continental crust

25

Plate tectonics

The theory that pieces of the Earths lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle

26

Transform Boundary

A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions

27

Divergent boundary

A plate boundary where two plates move away from each other

28

Convergent boundary

A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other

29

Rift Valley

A deep valley that forms where two plates move apart

30

Fault

A break or crack in Earth’s lithosphere along which rocks move