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Flashcards in Tectonics Deck (28):
1

What are the key features of a destructive margin?

DESTRUCTIVE
1) Continental/oceanic plates
2) The lighter (oceanic) plate is subducted
3) Volcanoes form (or fold mountains)
4) Causes both earthquakes and volcanoes

2

What are the key features of a constructive margin?

CONSTRUCTIVE
1) 2 plates pull apart from each other
2) Magma rises and forms volcanoes
3) Minor Earthquakes rarely occur

3

What are the key features of a conservative margin?

CONSERVATIVE
1) 2 continental plates
2) Slide along side each other, friction
3) Pressure bulds up, suddenly causing earthquakes

4

What is the LIC earthquake example?

Nepal Earthquake

5

When did the first tremors of the Nepal earthquake occur?

NEPAL
25th April 2015

6

What was the magnitude of the Nepal Earthquake?

NEPAL
Magnitude 7.9
Focus 15km below the surface

7

Name 4 key primary effects of the Nepal earthquake.

NEPAL
1) 9000 people died + 20000 injured
2) 26 hospitals destroyed
3) 50% schools destroyed
4) Royal Palace in Kathmandu destroyed

8

Name 4 key secondary effects of the Nepal earthquake.

NEPAL
1) 3 million left homeless
2) 1 million children without a school
3) $5 billion in damage
4) Rivers blocked by landslides

9

Name 3 key immediate responses to the Nepal earthquake

NEPAL
1) Search + rescue teams from UK + China
2) 0.5 million tents provided for shelter
3) Water and medical support from NGOs

10

Name 3 key long term responses to the Nepal earthquake

NEPAL
1) 1000s rehoused to 7000 new homes
2) Conference for technical support
3) August 2015 Everest base camp opened

11

What is the HIC earthquake example?

New Zealand

12

When did the first tremors of the New Zealand earthquake occur?

13th November 2016

13

What plate boundary is New Zealand on?

NEW ZEALAND
Conservative plate boundary between a oceanic and continental plate.

14

What was the magnitude of the New Zealand Earthquake?

NEW ZEALAND
Magnitude 7.8 with regular after shocks

15

Name 4 key primary effects of the New Zealand earthquake.

NEW ZEALAND
1) 2 people killed + 57 people injured
2) 1000 homes damaged
3) NZ rugby headquarters damaged
4) Kiakoura lost all electrical power

16

Name 4 key secondary effects of the New Zealand earthquake.

NEW ZEALAND
1) Cost $5 billion
2) Landslides blocked roads
3) A tsunami warning was triggered
Livestock and Coastal wildlife suffered due to land rises unevenly

17

Name 3 key immediate responses to the New Zealand earthquake

NEW ZEALAND
1) Emergency services quickly released trapped people
2) 900 people evacuated from Kiakoura 4 days after the earthquake.
3) 50 red cross workers helped out during evacuations, + NZ and US navies.

18

Name 3 key long term responses to the New Zealand earthquake

NEW ZEALAND
1) Christchurch shops became containers
2) Coastal roads diverted from landslides
3) $Billions from government to rebuild homes, particularly after 2010 tremors

19

What are the 5 reasons why people live in Volcano zones?

1) Fertile soils with nutrients
2) Thin crust, providing geothermal energy
3) Tourism is high, and tourists do tours
4) Precious gems can be found, due to the high heat and pressure in the volcanoes
5) Lots of minerals; iron, copper + gold

20

What are the 2 reasons why people live in Volcano zones?

1) High chance of natural employment in CA
2) People in LICs can't afford to leave home

21

How does geothermal monitoring help predict earthquakes?

- A historical record of mantle temperatures

22

How does Gas sampling help predict earthquakes?

- Monitors the changes in gas compression

23

How does GPS Technology help predict earthquakes?

- Monitors changes in height and bulging of volcanoes

24

How does Seismic Monitoring help predict earthquakes?

- Sound waves show amount of magma rising up to the surface

25

How do walls of rock help protect against earthquakes?

- Prevents lava reaching roads or houses

26

Is it easy to predict earthquakes?

No.
- Plate movements are unpredictable
- Estimates can only be made with historical data/

27

What can be used to protect buildings from earthquakes?

1) In HICs a pendulum to counter-act the force + deep foundations
2) In LICs houses are contructed out of wood, with cross bracing for strengh

28

What is an example of planning for earthquakes?

- The USGS uses chloropleth maps to highlight areas where an earthquake is most likely to occur