Flashcards in Tectonics Deck (28):
What are the key features of a destructive margin?
1) Continental/oceanic plates
2) The lighter (oceanic) plate is subducted
3) Volcanoes form (or fold mountains)
4) Causes both earthquakes and volcanoes
What are the key features of a constructive margin?
1) 2 plates pull apart from each other
2) Magma rises and forms volcanoes
3) Minor Earthquakes rarely occur
What are the key features of a conservative margin?
1) 2 continental plates
2) Slide along side each other, friction
3) Pressure bulds up, suddenly causing earthquakes
What is the LIC earthquake example?
When did the first tremors of the Nepal earthquake occur?
25th April 2015
What was the magnitude of the Nepal Earthquake?
Focus 15km below the surface
Name 4 key primary effects of the Nepal earthquake.
1) 9000 people died + 20000 injured
2) 26 hospitals destroyed
3) 50% schools destroyed
4) Royal Palace in Kathmandu destroyed
Name 4 key secondary effects of the Nepal earthquake.
1) 3 million left homeless
2) 1 million children without a school
3) $5 billion in damage
4) Rivers blocked by landslides
Name 3 key immediate responses to the Nepal earthquake
1) Search + rescue teams from UK + China
2) 0.5 million tents provided for shelter
3) Water and medical support from NGOs
Name 3 key long term responses to the Nepal earthquake
1) 1000s rehoused to 7000 new homes
2) Conference for technical support
3) August 2015 Everest base camp opened
What is the HIC earthquake example?
When did the first tremors of the New Zealand earthquake occur?
13th November 2016
What plate boundary is New Zealand on?
Conservative plate boundary between a oceanic and continental plate.
What was the magnitude of the New Zealand Earthquake?
Magnitude 7.8 with regular after shocks
Name 4 key primary effects of the New Zealand earthquake.
1) 2 people killed + 57 people injured
2) 1000 homes damaged
3) NZ rugby headquarters damaged
4) Kiakoura lost all electrical power
Name 4 key secondary effects of the New Zealand earthquake.
1) Cost $5 billion
2) Landslides blocked roads
3) A tsunami warning was triggered
Livestock and Coastal wildlife suffered due to land rises unevenly
Name 3 key immediate responses to the New Zealand earthquake
1) Emergency services quickly released trapped people
2) 900 people evacuated from Kiakoura 4 days after the earthquake.
3) 50 red cross workers helped out during evacuations, + NZ and US navies.
Name 3 key long term responses to the New Zealand earthquake
1) Christchurch shops became containers
2) Coastal roads diverted from landslides
3) $Billions from government to rebuild homes, particularly after 2010 tremors
What are the 5 reasons why people live in Volcano zones?
1) Fertile soils with nutrients
2) Thin crust, providing geothermal energy
3) Tourism is high, and tourists do tours
4) Precious gems can be found, due to the high heat and pressure in the volcanoes
5) Lots of minerals; iron, copper + gold
What are the 2 reasons why people live in Volcano zones?
1) High chance of natural employment in CA
2) People in LICs can't afford to leave home
How does geothermal monitoring help predict earthquakes?
- A historical record of mantle temperatures
How does Gas sampling help predict earthquakes?
- Monitors the changes in gas compression
How does GPS Technology help predict earthquakes?
- Monitors changes in height and bulging of volcanoes
How does Seismic Monitoring help predict earthquakes?
- Sound waves show amount of magma rising up to the surface
How do walls of rock help protect against earthquakes?
- Prevents lava reaching roads or houses
Is it easy to predict earthquakes?
- Plate movements are unpredictable
- Estimates can only be made with historical data/
What can be used to protect buildings from earthquakes?
1) In HICs a pendulum to counter-act the force + deep foundations
2) In LICs houses are contructed out of wood, with cross bracing for strengh