What are the two mechanisms by which overstrain can occur?
sudden overload or strain induced (more common)
Where do we most commonly see tendonitis in the horse?
superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendon
8-43% incidence in TB
What is the recommended treatment for Stringhalt?
Lateral digital extensor tenotomy
How do you test for rupture of common calcanean tendon?
try to flex the hock without flexing the stifle
If you're able to, there is a rupture. This can not happen in normal animals
Concerning the function of hyaluronic acid which statement is most accurate?
- It is responsible for the greatest proportion of resistance to joint motion
- It is a boundary lubricant of synovial membrane
- It stimulates fibroblast proliferation
- It is a lubricant of the articular cartilage
It is a boundary lubricant of synovial membrane
What are some complications associated with palmar digital neurectomy?
- Painful neuroma
- Persistence of sensation
- Loss of the hoof wall
What is the best tool for diagnosis of tendonitis?
What is the definition of tendonitis?
inflammation of a tendon, most commonly from overuse but can be from infection or traumatic injury
How do you treat a ruptured peroneus tertius?
stall rest for 2 months
scar tissue will form between the ruptured ends
Sweeny is paralysis of the __________ nerve that results in atrophy of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles
Sweeny is paralysis of the suprascapular nerve results in atrophy of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles
caused by direct trauma to the nerve clinically an outward movement of the scapula is seen during weight bearing muscle atrophy is seen in 7 to 14 days electromyography can be used to confirm the diagnosis
T/F: Most horses with common and long digital extensor tendon laceration return to athletic activities
When performing a palmar digital neurectomy in a horse, it should be remembered that the correct orientation of structures in the neurovascular bundle from dorsal to palmar is:
- Vein, artery, nerve
- Nerve, artery, vein
- Artery, nerve, vein
- Nerve, vein, artery
- Vein, nerve, artery
Vein, artery, nerve
Based on this video, what is your diagnosis?
ruptured peroneus tertius
Tendons can extend ~___ - ___% before rupture
Tendons can extend ~12-20% before rupture
The fetlock is dropped, but the toe is still pointed down. What structure(s) could be affected?
superficial digital flexor (SDF), suspensory ligament
What structure is indicated by the number 4?
What are the cardinal signs of inflammation in horses?
pain, swelling, heat, lameness
What structure is indicated by the number 1?
superficial digital flexor tendon
T/F: The most common complicaton of palmar digital neurectomy is infection of the navicular bursa
Dorsal to palmar, which of the following accurately lists the orientation of the tendons & ligaments in the proximal metacarpus?
- SDF tendon, DDF tendon, distal check ligament, suspensory ligament
- SDF tendon, DDF tendon, suspensory ligament
- SDF tendon, DDF tendon, suspensory ligament, distal check ligament
- Suspensory ligament, DDF tendon, distal check ligament, SDF tendon
- DDF tendon, SDF tendon
Suspensory ligament, DDF tendon, distal check ligament, SDF tendon
This horse pulled up lame after a cross-country event. Ultrasound was performed at the mid-metacarpal region. What is the diagnosis?
Core lesion in the superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendon
What structure is indicated by the number 2?
deep digital flexor tendon
What structure is indicated by the number 5?
Note the bowing in the left limb in this picture. What is the most likely diagnosis?
superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendonitis
T/F: The deep digital flexor (DDF) tendon is most prone to tendonitis
The superficial digital flexor (SDF) and the suspensory ligament (SL) are most prone to injury because they endure the most load during heel strike. Load on the DDF happens later
T/F: All treatments for tendonitis include rest and a controlled exercise program
◦Inflammation of the synovial membranes of the tendon sheath is termed
Where is the lesion?
periphery of the SDF
This presentation (toe pointed up) is seen with rupture of the _______
deep digital flexor (DDF) tendon
T/F: Palmar digital neurectomy may be indicated in the treatment of some fractures involving the palmar process of the distal phalanx
Up to ____% of the tendon can be lacerated and still provide full tendon function at the walk.
Overall, tendons have limited intrinsic repair. Scar tissue formation produces Type ___ collagen, resulting in a less elastic tendon
Tendons are made out of what type of collagen?
II, III, IV and V also present in smaller amounts
Shown below is a tendon stress-strain curve. What point signifies the failure point?
What structure is indicated by the number 3?
accessory ligament of the DDFT