Tendons, ligaments and Fascia Flashcards Preview

MJM anatomy > Tendons, ligaments and Fascia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tendons, ligaments and Fascia Deck (22):

What do tendons do?

they connect bones to muscles and contract to move one or more bones at the synovial joint


What is the tendon formed from?

collagen fibres from the perimysium


What are ligaments?

they are formed from tightly packed collagen arranged in parallel so they can respond to stress in a single direction
they attach bone to bone


What is Superficial Fascia?

- subcutaneous connective tissue lying beneath and merging with the dermis of the skin
- fibrous fatty tissue
- consists of fibroblasts, aq matrix, elastin and collagen fibre


What is deep fascia?

- tough
- lies beneath superficial fascia
- covers and entheaths muscles, aiding their attachment to bone
- can form tough bands called retinaculum


What are Bursae?

- sacs lined with delicate synovial membrane and filled with fluid
- found wherever tendoons run against bones or ligaments or other things


Why do tendons not repair as quickly?

This is because they are not well vascularised and so do not receive the essential nutrients


What are Adventitious Bursa?

THey are not anatomical bursa but develop in response to abnormal and excessive presure, this could be on the foot


How is Cartilage nourished?

By diffusion


What is Fascia?

connective tissue containing various amounts of fat that separate, support and interconnect organs and structures, enabling movement of one structure relative to another


What is the Retropharyngeal space?

potential space of the head and neck bounded by buccopharyngeal fascia posteriorly and the prevertebral fascia


What is an example of a first class lever in human anatomy?

the pivot being the atlanto occipital joint and force from splenius capitis and loaf is the weight of head
contraction of splenius capitis causes elevation of the head and as pivot is located between force and load the muscle never crosses the pivot


Why would a patient complaining of knee pain possibly have problems with the hip?

the sciatic, femoral and obturator nerve supply the hip but ALSO the knee


Where does the Ulnar nerve travel?

travels in ulnar groove on the medial epicondyle
cubital tunnel syndrome is entrapment of the ulnar nerve at the elbow
- loss of sensation over ulnar 1 and a half fingers and hand


how can we see joints?

X rays


What are four features to look for in osteoarthritis?

loss of joint space
subcondral bone sclerosis
cyst formation
osteophyte formation


What is a Lever?

consists of two joints working around a fulcrum, the fulcrum is the point at which the levers work. Fulcrum is the joint and there is an effort force and a resistance force, effort force being the movement muscle is making and resistive force being the load which is what the muscle is working against


What is the force arm?

The distance the force is from the pivot


What is the load arm?

The distance the resistance (load) is from the pivot


What is a first class lever?

less force needed to overcome load
This is where the pivot is located between force and load


What is a second class lever?

resistance is located between the force and the pivot
force arm is greater than load arm so there is less force needed to overcome the load
the range of motion is sacrificied to maximuse the little force required


What is a third class lever?

force located between pivot andthe load, muscle passes over the joint