TERM 2-MY NOTES CORE CONCEPTS IN PHARMACOLOGY CH.7 "Substance Abuse" Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in TERM 2-MY NOTES CORE CONCEPTS IN PHARMACOLOGY CH.7 "Substance Abuse" Deck (35):
1

Substance Abuse

,

2

Some agents, such as opium , marijuana, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol, are obtained from natural sources.
A)true
B)false

A

3

Others agents are synthetic or designer drugs that are created in illegal laboratories sole ly for making money in illegal drug trafficking .
A)true
B)false

A

4

Alcohol and nicotine are the two most commonly abused drugs.
A)true
B)false

A

5

Legal prescription medications such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and meperidine (Demerol) are sometimes abused.
A)true
B)false

A

6

Volatile inhalants, found in common household products such as aerosols and paint thinners, are often abused as with " huffing ."
A)true
B)false

A

7

Addiction, the progressive and chronic abuse of a substance, is an overwhelming feeling that drives someone to use a drug repeatedly despite serious health and social consequences.
A)true
B)false

A

8

Addiction depends on multiple, complex, and interacting variables. These variables fall into the following categories:

• Agent or drug of abuse Cost, availability, dose, method of administration (e.g., oral, IV, inhalation), speed of onset/duration of effect, and length of drug use

• User factors Genetic factors (e.g., metabolic enzymes, natural tolerance), tendency toward risk-taking behavior, prior experiences with drugs, disease that may require a scheduled drug

• Environment Social/community norms (behav ior accepte d within a communi ty), role mode ls, peer influences, educational opportunities

True

9

When a person has an overwhelming desire to take a drug and cannot stop, it is referred to as substance dependence.
A)true
B)false

A

10

Substance dependence is classified into two categories: physical dependence and psychological dependence.
A)true
B)false

A

11

Physical dependence is an altered physical condition caused by the nervous system adapting to repeated substance use. Over time, the body 's cell s are tricked into believing that it is normal for the substance to continually be present.
A)true
B)false

A

12

With physical dependence, uncomfortable symptoms, known as withdrawal syndrome, occur when the agent is stopped.
A)true
B)false

A

13

Opioids, such as morphine and heroin, may produce physical dependence rather quickly with repeated doses, particularly when taken intravenously.
A)true
B)false

A

14

Alcohol, sedatives, some stimulants, and nicotine are other examples of substances that may easily produce physical dependence with repeated use.
A)true
B)false

A

15

psychological dependence causes no apparent signs of physical discomfort after the agent is stopped. The person, however, will have an intense craving and display an overwhelming desire to continue using the substance even if there are obvious negative economic, physical, or social consequences. The intense craving may be associated with the individual's home environment or social contacts
A)true
B)false

A

16

Psychological dependence usually occurs only after relatively high doses of the substance have been used for along time, such as with marijuana and antianxiety drugs.
A)true
B)false

A

17

Tolerance is a biological condition that occurs when the body adapts to a substance after it is repeatedly administered. Over time, higher doses of the agent are needed to produce the initial effect.
A)true
B)false

A

18

For example, at the start of pharmacotherapy, a patient may find that 2 mg of a sedative is effective for causing sleep. After taking the medication for several months, the patient notices that it takes 4 mg or perhaps 6 mg to fall asleep.
A)tolerance
B)pain

A

19

Development of drug tolerance is common for substances that affect the nervous system.
A)true
B)false

A

20

Once tolerance develops to one substance, it often also occurs with use of closely related drugs. This reaction is known as cross-tolerance. For example, a heroin addict will be tolerant to the analgesic effects of other opioids such as morphine or meperidine
A)cross tolerance
B)pain

A

21

Most healthcare providers report that they have encountered coworkers with perceived alcohol or substance abuse problems. For example, as compared to nurses in other specialties, critical care nurses are especially likely to use cocaine and marijuana. Generally among nurses, alcohol is the most commonly abused substance; prescription drugs are abused secondly.
A)true
B)false

A

22

Signs of substance abuse may be smell of alcohol on the breath covered up by mints or mouth wash, frequent absence from the unit to visit the restroom, or patients compla ining of not receiving medications. Patients may complain about feeling pain despite having received seemingly adequate or repeated dosing of medication.
A)true for health care workers
B)false

A

23

Withdrawal results when an abused substance is no longer available. When an abused drug is discontinued, patients may experience uncomfortable physical symptoms known as withdrawal syndrome. Symptoms vary depending on the specific drug of abuse and range from mild to life threatening.
A)true
B)false

A

24

Reasons why health care providers have problems with alcohol or drug abuse seem to be related to demands in the health profession, including self-reliant social and professional environments, rotating working shifts, and fatigue. Signs of impairment are frequent mood swings, irritability or depressive symptoms, smell of alcohol on the breath, frequent absences from the unit, or patients not receiving proper medications.
A)true
B)false

A

25

Support groups and organizations assist with these related issues.for health care addicts
A)true
B)false

A

26

The two most commonly abused drugs are:
1. Alcohol and nicotine
2. Opioids and inhalants

1

27

The patient has bee n diagnosed with a narcotic analgesic overdose. Which of the following symptom. are most likely associated with a narcotic analgesic overdose?
1.Irritability, restlessness, abdomina l cramping
2. Excessive sweating. agitation. goose-bumps chills. increased heart rate

2

28

When the patient requires a higher dose or the substance to produce the initial effect, this is known as:
A)Immunity
B)Tolerance

B

29

The patient has developed an opioid addiction. The nurse anticipates that which of the following medications will be used for opioid withdrawal?
A)Methadone
B)Heroin

A

30

The nurse understands that which of the following substances produces little physical dependence or tolerance?
A)Heroin
B)Marijuana
C)Alcohol
D)Cocaine

B

31

The nurse recognizes that methylphenidate (Ritalin) is classified as a:
1. Schedule I drug
2. Schedule II drug
3. Schedule III drug

2

32

The nurse assesses the patient and finds the following: increased heart rate, dilated pupils, elevated body temperature, and sweating. The nurse suspects:
1. Marijuana use
2. Heroin use
3. Cocaine use
4. Amphetamine use

3

33

Which of the following would the nurse find when assessing the patient for use of barbiturates?
1. Slurred speech, lack of muscle coordination , decreased respirations
2. Euphoria and irritability
3.Increased pain threshold and hallucinations
4. Increased blood pressure and respirations

1

34

physical dependence:
3.The patient exhibits signs of withdrawal after the drug is discontinued.
4. Higher doses are required to produce the initia l effect of the drug.

3

35

The nurse educates the patient on disulfiram (Antabuse), saying that
1.only small amounts of a lcohol may be ingested while on thi s drug.
2. If alcohol is ingested, the patient may experience shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, and headache.
3. It is safe for use in pregnancy.
4. lt enhances alcohol metabolism within the body.

2

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