TERM 2-MY NOTES CORE CONCEPTS OF PHARMACOLOGY CH.22 "Drugs for Shock and Anaphylaxis" Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in TERM 2-MY NOTES CORE CONCEPTS OF PHARMACOLOGY CH.22 "Drugs for Shock and Anaphylaxis" Deck (28):
1

Shock is a syndrome characterized by collapse of the circulatory system.
A)true
B)false

A

2

obvious trauma or bleeding combined with the symptoms mentioned previously would suggest hypovolemic shock.

If trauma to the brain or spinal cord is evident, neurogenic shock may be suspected.

A history of heart disease would suggest cardiogenic shock, whereas a recent infection may indicate septic shock.

A history of allergy with a sudden onset of symptoms following food or drug intake may suggest anaphylaxis.

True

3

The heart and brain are affected early in the progression of shock. Lack of blood to the brain may result in fainting, whereas disruption of blood supply to the myocardium may cause permanent damage to the heart. Immediate treatment is necessary to prevent failure of other organ systems, including respiratory collapse or renal failure.
A)true
B)false

A

4

The initial treatment of shock includes basic life support and identification of the underlying cause.
A)true
B)false

A

5

Acute shock is treated as a medical emergency, and the first goal is to provide basic life support. Rapid identification of the underlying cause is essential because the patient's condition.
A)true
B)false

A

6

The two primary pharmacotherapeutic goals are to restore normal fluid volume and composition and to maintain adequate blood pressure. For anaphylaxis. an additional therapeutic goal is to prevent or stop the hypersenitive inflammatory response. Unless contraindicated, oxygen is administered.
A)true
B)false

A

7

Fluid repl acement agents may be categorized as blood products, colloids, or crystalloids. Colloid and crystalloid infusions are often used when up to one thi rd of an adult's blood volume is lost.
A)true
B)false

A

8

Blood products. Whole blood may be used for the treatment of acute, massive blood loss when there is the need to replace plasma volume and supply reel blood cells. The supply o f blood products, however, depends on human donors and requires careful cross-matching to ensure compatibility between the donor and patient.
A)true
B)false

A

9

Colloids are proteins or other large molecules that stay suspended in the blood for a long period and draw water molecules from the body" s cells and tissues into the blood vessels.
A)true
B)false

A

10

Crystalloids are IV solutions that contain e lectrolytes in amounts resembling those of natural plasma. Un like colloids, crystalloid solutions leave the blood and enter cells. They are used to replace fluids that have been lost and to increase urine output
A)true
B)false

A

11

Vasoconstrictors are administered during shock to maintain blood pressure.
A)true
B)false

A

12

Vasoconstrictors used to treat shock include dopamine (Dopastat, lntropin), norepinephrine (Levophed). phenylephrine (Nee-Synephrine), and epinephrine. Because dopamine also affects the strength of myocardial contraction, it is considered both a vasopressor and an inotropic agent.
A)true
B)false

A

13

Inotropic drugs are useful in reversing the decreased cardiac output that occurs during shock.
A)true
B)false

A

14

Inotropic drugs, also called cardiotonic drugs, have the potential to reverse the cardiac symptoms of shock by increasing the force of myocardial contraction. The role of the cardiotonic drug digoxin (Lanoxin) in treating patients with heart failure
A)true
B)false

A

15

Dopa mine is often a drug of choice for increasing cardiac output in acute situations because it has both inotropic and vasoconstriction actions
A)true
B)false

A

16

Patients treated for shock need to know the following:

1. Seek emergency medical assistance immediately if signs or symptoms of shock are being experienced.

2. W hile wait ing for med ical assistance, keep warm by using blankets.

3. Have a caregiver, if present, monitor temperature, pulse, and blood pressure until emergency medical assistance arrives.

4. Do not move around. Lie down and elevate the feet.

5. Report any changes in mental status, such as depression, confusion, or anxiety, to the health care provider immediately.

6. If allergies to bee or wasp stings are known, ca rry medications such as an EpiPen for all outside activities. Inform others of any allergies, where medications are kept, and how to administer them.

7. Take medications for shock (such as epinephrine) exactly as prescribed.

True

17

Classification of Shock

,

18

Acute allergic reaction

Anaphylactic Severe reaction to allergens such as penici llin, nuts, she llfish, or an imal proteins
A)anaphylactic shock
B)neruogenic shock

A

19

Failure of the heart to pump sufficient blood to tissues

Left heart failure, myocardial ischemia, Ml, dysrhythmias, pulmonary embolism, and myocardial or pericardial infection
A)Cardiogenic
B)false

A

20

Loss of blood volume

Hemorrhage, burns, profuse sweating, excessive urination, vomiting, or diarrhea
A)Hypovolemic
B)false

A

21

Vasodilation due to overstimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system or understimulation of the sympathetic nervous system

Trauma to the spinal cord or medulla, severe emotional stress or pain, drugs that depress the central nervous system
A)Neurogenic
B)false

A

22

Multiple organ dysfunction as a result of pathogenic organisms in the blood

Widespread inflammatory response to bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection
A)Septic
B)false

A

23

Symptoms of a patient in shock

,

24

Neurologic
• Restlessness
• Anxiety
• Lethargy
• Confusion

True

25

Cardiovascular
• Tachycardia
• Thready pulse
• Low cardiac output
• Low blood pressure

True

26

Metabolism
• Low temperature
• Thirst
• Acidosis
• Low urine output

True

27

Respiratory
• Rapid breathing
• Shallow respiration

True

28

Drugs for Shock and Anaphylaxis

,

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